Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois.

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Biographical and Memorial Edition of the Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois, Volume I, by Newton Bateman, LL.D. and Paul Selby, A. M. and Special Authors and Contributors. Chicago: Munsell Publishing Company Publishers, 1915.

CABLE, a town in Mercer County, on the Rock Island & Peoria Railroad, 26 miles south by east from Rock Island. Coal-mining is the principal industry, but there are also tile works, a good quality of clay for manufacturing purposes being found in abundance. Population (1880), 572; (1890), 1,276; (1900), 697; (1910), 360.

CABLE, Benjamin T., capitalist and politician, was born in Georgetown, Scott County, Ky., August 11, 1853. When he was three years old his father's family removed to Rock Island, Ill., where he has since resided. After passing through the Rock Island public schools, he matriculated at the University of Michigan, graduating in June, 1876. He owns extensive ranch and manufacturing property, and is reputed wealthy; is also an active Democratic politician, and influential in his party, having been a member of both the National and State Central Committees. In 1890 he was elected to Congress from the Eleventh Illinois District, but since 1893 has held no public office.

CABLE, Ransom R., railway manager, was born in Athens County, Ohio, Sept. 23, 1834. His early training was mainly of the practical sort, and by the time he was 17 years old he was actively employed as a lumberman. In 1857 he removed to Illinois, first devoting his attention to coal mining in the neighborhood of Rock Island. Later he became interested in the projection and management of railroads, being in turn Superintendent, Vice-President and President of the Rock Island & Peoria Railroad. His next position was that of General Manager of the Rockford, Rock Island & St. Louis Railroad. His experience in these positions rendered him familiar with both the scope and the details of railroad management, while his success brought him to the favorable notice of those who controlled railway interests all over the country. In 1876 he was elected a Director of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway. In connection with this company he also held, successively, the offices of Vice-President, Assistant to the President, General Manager and President, being chief executive officer from 1880. Died Nov. 12, 1909. (See Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway.)

CAHOKIA, the first permanent white settlement in Illinois, and, in French colonial times, one of its principal towns. French Jesuit missionaries established the mission of the Tamaroas here in 1700, to which they gave the name of "Sainte Famille de Caoquias," antedating the settlement at Kaskaskia of the same year by a few months. Cahokia and Kaskaskia were jointly made the county-seats of St. Clair County, when that county was organized by Governor St. Clair in 1790. Five years later, when Randolph County was set off from St. Clair, Cahokia was continued as the county-seat of the parent county, so remaining until the removal of the seat of justice to Belleville in 1814. Like its early rival, Kaskaskia, it has dwindled in importance until, in 1890, its population was estimated at 100. Descendants of the early French settlers make up a considerable portion of the present population. The site of the old town is on the line of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railroad, about four miles from East St. Louis. Some of the most remarkable Indian mounds in the Mississippi Valley, known as "the Cahokia Mounds," are located in the vicinity. (See Mound-Builders, Works of the)

CAIRNES, Abraham, a native of Kentucky, in 1816 settled in that part of Crawford County, Ill., which was embraced in Lawrence County on the organization of the latter in 1821. Mr. Cairnes was a member of the House for Crawford County in the Second General Assembly (1820-22), and for Lawrence County in the Third (1822-24), in the latter voting against the pro-slavery Convention scheme. He removed from Lawrence County to some point on the Mississippi River in 1826, but further details of his history are unknown.

CAIRO, the county-seat of Alexander County, and the most important river point between St. Louis and Memphis. Its first charter was obtained from the Territorial Legislature by Shadrach Bond (afterwards Governor of Illinois), John G. Comyges and others, who incorporated the "City and Bank of Cairo." The company entered about 1,800 acres, but upon the death of Mr. Comyges, the land reverted to the Government. The forfeited tract was re-entered in 1835 by Sidney Breese and others, who later transferred it to the "Cairo City and Canal Company," a corporation chartered in 1837, which, by purchase, increased its holdings to 10,000 acres. Peter Stapleton is said to have erected the first house, and John Hawley the second, within the town limits. In consideration of certain privileges, the Illinois Central Railroad has erected around the water front a substantial levee, eighty feet wide. During the Civil War Cairo was an important base for military operations; is an important shipping point; has flouring mills and other factories; 2 daily and 3 weekly papers. Pop. (1910), 14,548.

CAIRO BRIDGE, THE, one of the triumphs of modern engineering, erected by the Illinois Central Railroad Company across the Ohio River, opposite the city of Cairo. It is the longest metallic bridge across a river in the world, being thixty-three feet longer than the Tay Bridge, in Scotland. The work of construction was begun, July 1, 1887, and uninterruptedly prosecuted for twenty-seven months, being completed, Oct. 29, 1889. The first train to cross it was made up of ten locomotives coupled together. The approaches from both the Illinois and Kentucky shores consist of iron viaducts and well-braced timber trestles. The Illinois viaduct approach consists of seventeen spans of 150 feet each, and one span of 106 1/4 feet. All these rest on cylinder piers filled with concrete, and are additionally supported by piles driven within the cylinders. The viaduct on the Kentucky shore is of similar general construction. The total number of spans is twenty-two—twenty-one being of 150 feet each, and one of 106 1/4 feet. The total length of the metal work, from end to end, is 10,650 feet, including that of the bridge proper, which is 4.644 feet. The latter consists of nine through spans and three deck spans. The through spans rest on ten first-class masonry piers on pneumatic foundations. The total length of the bridge, including the timber trestles, is 20,461 feet—about 3 7/8 miles. Four-fifths of the Illinois trestle work has been filled in with earth, while that on the southern shore has been virtually replaced by an embankment since the completion of the bridge. The bridge proper stands 104.42 feet in the clear above low water, and from the deepest foundation to the top of the highest iron work is 248.94 feet. The total cost of the work, including the filling and embankment of the trestles, has been (1895) between $3,250,000 and $3,500,000.

CAIRO, VINCENNES & CHICAGO RAILROAD, a division of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railway, extending from Danville to Cairo (261 miles), with a branch nine miles in length from St. Francisville, Ill., to Vincennes, Ind. It was chartered as the Cairo & Vincennes Railroad in 1867, completed in 1872, placed in the hands of a receiver in 1874, sold under foreclosure in January, 1880, and for some time operated as the Cairo Division of the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway. In 1889, having been surrendered by the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway, it was united with the Danville & Southwestern Railroad, reorganized as the Cairo, Vincennes & Chicago Railroad, and, in 1890, leased to the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railway, of which it is known as the "Cairo Division." (See Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railway.)

CAIRO & ST. LOUIS RAILROAD. (See St. Louis & Cairo Railroad and Mobile & Ohio Railway.)

CAIRO & VINCENNES RAILROAD. (See Cairo, Vincennes & Chicago Railroad.)

CALDWELL, (Dr.) George, early physician and legislator (the name is spelled both Cadwell and Caldwell in the early records), was born at Wethersfield, Conn., Feb. 21, 1773, and received his literary education at Hartford, and his professional at Rutland, Vt. He married a daughter of Hon. Matthew Lyon, who was a native of Ireland, and who served two terms in Congress from Vermont, four from Kentucky (1803-11), and was elected the first Delegate in Congress from Arkansas Territory, but died before taking his seat in August, 1822. Lyon was also a resident for a time of St. Louis, and was a candidate for Delegate to Congress from Missouri Territory, but defeated by Edward Hempstead (see Hempstead, Edward). Dr. Caldwell descended the Ohio River in 1799 in company with Lyon's family and his brother-in-law, John Messinger (see Messinger, John), who afterwards became a prominent citizen of St. Clair County, the party locating at Eddyville, Ky. In 1802, Caldwell and Messinger removed to Illinois, landing near old Fort Chartres, and remained some time in the American Bottom. The former finally located on the banks of the Mississippi a few miles above St. Louis, where he practiced his profession and held various public offices, including those of Justice of the Peace and County Judge for St. Clair County, as also for Madison County after the organization of the latter. He served as State Senator from Madison County in the First and Second General Assemblies (1818-22), and, having removed in 1820 within the limits of what is now Morgan County (but still earlier embraced in Greene), in 1822 was elected to the Senate for Greene and Pike Counties—the latter at that time embracing all the northern and northwestern part of the State, including the county of Cook. During the following session of the Legislature he was a sturdy opponent of the scheme to make Illinois a slave State. His home in Morgan County was in a locality known as "Swinerton's Point," a few miles west of Jacksonville, where he died, August 1, 1826. (See Slavery and Slave Laws.) Dr. Caldwell (or Cadwell, as he was widely known) commanded a high degree of respect among early residents of Illinois. Governor Reynolds, in his "Pioneer History of Illinois," says of him: "He was moral and correct in his public and private life, . . was a respectable physician, and always maintained an unblemished character."

CALHOUN, John, pioneer printer and editor, was born at Watertown, N. Y., April 14, 1808; learned the printing trade and practiced it in his native town, also working in a type-foundry in Albany and as a compositor in Troy. In the fall of 1833 he came to Chicago, bringing with him an outfit for the publication of a weekly paper, and, on Nov. 26, began the issue of "The Chicago Democrat"—the first paper ever published in that city. Mr. Calhoun retained the management of the paper three years, transferring it in November, 1836, to John Wentworth, who conducted it until its absorption by "The Tribune" in July, 1861. Mr. Calhoun afterwards served as County Treasurer, still later as Collector, and, finally, as agent of the Illinois Central Railroad in procuring right of way for the construction of its lines. Died in Chicago, Feb. 20, 1859.

CALHOUN, John, surveyor and politician, was born in Boston, Mass., Oct. 14, 1806; removed to Springfield, Ill., in 1830, served in the Black Hawk War and was soon after appointed County Surveyor. It was under Mr. Calhoun, and by his appointment, that Abraham Lincoln served for some time as Deputy Surveyor of Sangamon County. In 1838 Calhoun was chosen Representative in the General Assembly, but was defeated in 1840, though elected Clerk of the House at the following session. He was a Democratic Presidential Elector in 1844, was an unsuccessful candidate for the nomination for Governor in 1846, and, for three terms (1849, '50 and '51), served as Mayor of the city of Springfield. In 1852 he was defeated by Richard Yates (afterwards Governor and United States Senator), as a candidate for Congress, but two years later was appointed by President Pierce Surveyor-General of Kansas, where he became discreditably conspicuous by his zeal in attempting to carry out the policy of the Buchanan administration for making Kansas a slave State—especially in connection with the Lecompton Constitutional Convention, with the election of which he had much to do, and over which he presided. Died at St. Joseph, Mo., Oct. 25, 1859.

CALHOUN, William J., lawyer, was born in Pittsburg, Pa., Oct. 5, 1847. After residing at various points in that State, his family removed to Ohio, where he worked on a farm until 1864, when he enlisted as a private in the Nineteenth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, serving to the end of the war. He participated in a number of severe battles while with Sherman on the march against Atlanta, returning with General Thomas to Nashville, Tenn. During the last few months of the war he served in Texas, being mustered out at San Antonio in that State, though receiving his final discharge at Columbus, Ohio. After the war he entered the Poland Union Seminary, where he became the intimate personal friend of Maj. William McKinley, who was elected to the Presidency in 1896. Having graduated at the seminary, he came to Areola, Douglas County, Ill., and began the study of law, later taking a course in a law school in Chicago, after which he was admitted to the bar (1875) and established himself in practice at Danville as the partner of the Hon. Joseph B. Mann. In 1882 Mr. Calhoun was elected as a Republican to the lower branch of the Thirty-third General Assembly and, during the following session, proved himself one of the ablest members of that body. In May, 1897, Mr. Calhoun was appointed by President McKinley a special envoy to investigate the circumstances attending the death of Dr. Ricardo Ruiz, a naturalized citizen of the United States who had died while a prisoner in the hands of the Spaniards during the rebellion then in progress in Cuba. In 1898 he was appointed a member of the Inter-State Commerce Commission, is now (1911) Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to China.

CALHOUN COUNTY, situated between the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers, just above their junction. It has an area of 254 square miles, with a population (1910) of 8,610; was organized in 1825 and named for John C. Calhoun. Originally, the county was well timbered and the early settlers were largely engaged in lumbering, which tended to give the population more or less of a migratory character. Much of the timber has been cleared off, and the principal business in later years has been agriculture, although coal is found and mined in paying quantities along Silver Creek. Tradition has it that the aborigines found the precious metals in the bed of this stream. It was originally included within the limits of the Military Tract set apart for the veterans of the War of 1812. The physical conformation of the county's surface exhibits some peculiarities. Limestone bluffs, rising sometimes to the height of 200 feet, skirt the banks of both rivers, while through the center of the county runs a ridge dividing the two watersheds. The side valleys and the top of the central ridge are alike fertile. The bottom lands are very rich, but are liable to inundation. The county-seat and principal town is Hardin, with a population (1890) of 311.

CALLAHAN, Ethelbert, lawyer and legislator, was born near Newark, Ohio, Dec. 17, 1829; came to Crawford County, Ill., in 1849, where he farmed, taught school and edited, at different times, "The Wabash Sentinel" and "The Marshall Telegraph." He early identified himself with the Republican party, and, in 1864, was the Republican candidate for Congress in his district; became a member of the first State Board of Equalization by appointment of Governor Oglesby in 1867; served in the lower house of the General Assembly during the sessions of 1875, '91, '93 and '95, and, in 1893-95, on a Joint Committee to revise the State Revenue Laws. He was also Presidential Elector in 1880, and again in 1888. Mr. Callahan was admitted to the bar when past 30 years of age, and was President of the State Bar Association in 1889. His home is at Robinson.

CALUMET RIVER, a short stream the main body of which is formed by the union of two branches which come together at the southern boundary of the city of Chicago, and which flows into Lake Michigan a short distance north of the Indiana State line. The eastern branch, known as the Grand Calumet, flows in a westerly direction from Northwestern Indiana and unites with the Little Calumet from the west, 3 1/2 miles from the mouth of the main stream. From the southern limit of Chicago the general course of the stream is north between Lake Calumet and Wolf Lake, which it serves to drain. At its mouth, Calumet Harbor has been constructed, which admits of the entrance of vessels of heavy draught, and is a shipping and receiving point of importance for heavy freight for the Illinois Steel Works, the Pullman Palace Car Works and other manufacturing establishments in that vicinity. The river is regarded as a navigable stream, and has been dredged by the General Government to a depth of twenty feet and 200 feet wide for a distance of two miles, with a depth of sixteen feet for the remainder of the distance to the forks. The Calumet feeder for the Illinois and Michigan Canal extends from the west branch (or Little Calumet) to the canal in the vicinity of Willow Springs. The stream was known to the early French explorers as "the Calimic," and was sometimes confounded by them with the Chicago River.

CALUMET RIVER RAILROAD, a short line, 4.43 miles in length, lying wholly within Cook County. The Pennsylvania Railroad Company is the lessee, but the line is not operated at present (1898). Its outstanding capital stock is $68,700. It has no funded debt, but has a floating debt of $116,357, making a total capitalization of $185,087. This road extends from One Hundredth Street in Chicago to Hegewisch, and was chartered in 1883. (See Pennsylvania Railroad.)

CAMBRIDGE, the county-seat of Henry County, about 160 miles southwest of Chicago, on the Rock Island & Peoria Railroad. It is situated in a fertile region chiefly devoted to agriculture and stock-raising. The city is a considerable grain market and has some manufactories. Some coal is also mined. It has a public library, three newspapers, three banks, good schools, and handsome public (county) buildings. Population (1880), 1,203; (1890), United States census report, 940; (1900), 1,345; (1910), 1,272.

CAMERON, James, Cumberland Presbyterian minister and pioneer, was born in Kentucky in 1791, came to Illinois in 1815, and, in 1818, settled in Sangamon County. In 1829 he is said to have located where the town of New Salem (afterwards associated with the early history of Abraham Lincoln) was built, and of which he and James Rutledge were the founders. He is also said to have officiated at the funeral of Ann Rutledge, with whose memory Mr. Lincoln's name has been tenderly associated by his biographers. Mr. Cameron subsequently removed successively to Fulton County, Ill., to Iowa and to California, dying at a ripe old age, in the latter State, about 1878.

CAMP DOUGLAS, a Federal military camp established at Chicago early in the War of the Rebellion, located between Thirty-first Street and College Place, and Cottage Grove and Forest Avenues. It was originally designed and solely used as a camp of instruction for new recruits. Afterwards it was utilized as a place of confinement for Confederate prisoners of war. (For plot to liberate the latter, together with other similar prisoners in Illinois, see Camp Douglas Conspiracy.)

CAMP DOUGLAS CONSPIRACY, a plot formed in 1864 for the liberation of the Confederate prisoners of war at Chicago (in Camp Douglas), Rock Island, Alton and Springfield. It was to be but a preliminary step in the execution of a design long cherished by the Confederate Government, viz., the seizing of the organized governments of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, and the formation of a Northwestern Confederacy, through the cooperation of the "Sons of Liberty." (See Secret Treasonable Societies.) Three peace commissioners (Jacob Thompson, C. C. Clay and J. P. Holcomb), who had been sent from Richmond to Canada, held frequent conferences with leaders of the treasonable organizations in the North, including Clement L. Vallandigham, Bowles, of Indiana, and one-Charles Walsh, who was head of the movement in Chicago, with a large number of allies in that city and scattered throughout the States. The general management of the affair was entrusted to Capt. Thomas H. Hines, who had been second in command to the rebel Gen. John Morgan during his raid north of the Ohio River, while Col. Vincent Marmaduke, of Missouri, and G. St. Leger Grenfell (an Englishman) were selected to carry out the military program. Hines followed out his instructions with great zeal and labored indefatigably. Thompson's duty was to disseminate incendiary treasonable literature, and strengthen the timorous "Sons of Liberty" by the use of argument and money, both he and his agents being lavishly supplied with the latter. There was to be a draft in July, 1864, and it was determined to arm the "Sons of Liberty" for resistance, the date of uprising being fixed for July 20. This part of the scheme, however, was finally abandoned. Captain Hines located himself at Chicago, and personally attended to the distribution of funds and the purchase of arms. The date finally fixed for the attempt to liberate the Southern prisoners was August 29, 1864, when the National Democratic Convention was to assemble at Chicago. On that date it was expected the city would be so crowded that the presence of the promised force of "Sons" would not excite comment. The program also included an attack on the city by water, for which purpose reliance was placed upon a horde of Canadian refugees, under Capt. John B. Castleman. There were some 26,500 Southern prisoners in the State at this time, of whom about 8,000 were at Chicago, 6,000 at Rock Island, 7,500 at Springfield, and 5,000 at Alton. It was estimated that there were 4,000 "Sons of Liberty" in Chicago, who would be largely reen forced. "With these and the Canadian refugees the prisoners at Camp Douglas were to be liberated, and the army thus formed was to march upon Rock Island, Springfield and Alton. But suspicions were aroused, and the Camp was reenforced by a regiment of infantry and a battery. The organization of the proposed assailing force was very imperfect, and the great majority of those who were to compose it were lacking in courage. Not enough of the latter reported for service to justify an attack, and the project was postponed. In the meantime a preliminary part of the plot, at least indirectly connected with the Camp Douglas conspiracy, and which contemplated the release of the rebel officers confined on Johnson's Island in Lake Erie, had been "nipped in the bud" by the arrest of Capt. C. H. Cole, a Confederate officer in disguise, on the 19th of September, just as he was on the point of putting in execution a scheme for seizing the United States steamer Michigan at Sandusky, and putting on board of it a Confederate crew. November 8 was the date next selected to carry out the Chicago scheme—the day of President Lincoln's second election. The same preliminaries were arranged, except that no water attack was to be made. But Chicago was to be burned and flooded, and its banks pillaged. Detachments were designated to apply the torch, to open fire plugs, to levy arms, and to attack banks. But representatives of the United States Secret Service had been initiated into the "Sons of Liberty," and the plans of Captain Hines and his associates were well known to the authorities. An efficient body of detectives was put upon their track by Gen. B. J. Sweet, the commandant at Camp Douglas, although some of the most valuable service in running down the conspiracy and capturing its agents, was rendered by Dr. T. Winslow Ayer of Chicago, a Colonel Langhorne (an ex-Confederate who had taken the oath of allegiance without the knowledge of some of the parties to the plot), and Col. J. T. Shanks, a Confederate prisoner who was known as "The Texan." Both Langhorne and Shanks were appalled at the horrible nature of the plot as it was unfolded to them, and entered with zeal into the effort to defeat it. Shanks was permitted to escape from Camp Douglas, thereby getting in communication with the leaders of the plot who assisted to conceal him, while he faithfully apprised General Sweet of their plans. On the night of Nov. 6—or rather after midnight on the morning of the 7th—General Sweet caused simultaneous arrests of the leaders to be made at their hiding-places. Captain Hines was not captured, but the following conspirators were taken into custody: Captains Cantrill and Traverse; Charles Walsh, the Brigadier-General of the "Sons of Liberty," who was sheltering them, and in whose barn and house was found a large quantity of arms and military stores; Cols. St. Leger Grenfell, W. R. Anderson and J. T. Shanks; R. T. Semmes, Vincent Marmaduke, Charles T. Daniel and Buckner S. Morris, the Treasurer of the order. They wrere tried by Military Commission at Cincinnati for conspiracy. Marmaduke and Morris were acquitted; Anderson committed suicide during the trial; Walsh, Semmes and Daniels were sentenced to the penitentiary, and Grenfell was sentenced to be hung, although his sentence was afterward commuted to life imprisonment at the Dry Tortugas, where he mysteriously disappeared some years afterward, but whether he escaped or was drowned in the attempt to do so has never been known. The British Government had made repeated attempts to secure his release, a brother of his being a General in the British Army. Daniels managed to escape, and was never recaptured, while Walsh and Semmes, after undergoing brief terms of imprisonment, were pardoned by President Johnson. The subsequent history of Shanks, who played so prominent a part in defeating the scheme of wholesale arson, pillage and assassination, is interesting. "While in prison he had been detailed for service as a clerk in one of the offices under the direction of General Sweet, and, while thus employed, made the acquaintance of a young lady member of a loyal family, whom he afterwards married. After the exposure of the contemplated uprising, the rebel agents in Canada offered a reward of $1,000 in gold for the taking of his life, and he was bitterly persecuted. The attention of President Lincoln was called to the service rendered by him, and sometime during 1865 he received a commission as Captain and engaged in fighting the Indians upon the Plains. The efficiency shown by Colonel Sweet in ferreting out the conspiracy and defeating its consummation won for him the gratitude of the people of Chicago and the whole nation, and was recognized by the Government in awarding him a commission as Brigadier-General. (See Benjamin J. Sweet, Camp Douglas and Secret Treasonable Societies.)

CAMPBELL, Alexander, legislator and Congressman, was born at Concord, Pa., Oct. 4, 1814. After obtaining a limited education in the common schools, at an early age he secured employment as a clerk in an iron manufactory. He soon rose to the position of superintendent, managing iron-works in Pennsylvania, Kentucky and Missouri, until 1850, when he removed to Illinois, settling at La Salle. He was twice (1852 and 1853) elected Mayor of that city, and represented his county in the Twenty-first General Assembly (1859). He was also a member of the State Constitutional Convention of 1862, and served one term (1875-77) as Representative in Congress, being elected as an Independent, but, in 1878, was defeated for re-election by Philip C. Hayes, Republican. Mr. Campbell was a zealous friend of Abraham Lincoln, and, in 1858, contributed liberally to the expenses of the latter in making the tour of the State during the debate with Douglas. He broke with the Republican party in 1874 on the greenback issue, which won for him the title of "Father of the Greenback." His death occurred at La Salle, August 9, 1898.

CAMPBELL, Antrim, early lawyer, was born in New Jersey in 1814; came to Springfield, Ill., in 1838; was appointed Master in Chancery for Sangamon County in 1849, and, in 1861, to a similar position by the United States District Court for that district. Died, August 11, 1868.

CAMPBELL, James R., Congressman and soldier, was born in Hamilton County, Ill., May 4, 1853, his ancestors being among the first settlers in that section of the State; was educated at Notre Dame University, Ind., read law and was admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court in 1877; in 1878 purchased "The McLeansboro Times," which he has since conducted; was elected to the lower house of the General Assembly in 1884, and again in '86, advanced to the Senate in 1888, and re-elected in '92. During his twelve years' experience in the Legislature he participated, as a Democrat, in the celebrated Logan-Morrison contest for the United States Senate, in 1885, and assisted in the election of Gen. John M. Palmer to the Senate in 1891. At the close of his last term in the Senate (1896) he was elected to Congress from the Twentieth District, receiving a plurality of 2,851 over Orlando Burrell, Republican, who had been elected in 1894. On the second call for troops issued by the President during the Spanish-American War, Mr. Campbell organized a regiment which was mustered in as the Ninth Regiment Illinois Volunteers, of which he was commissioned Colonel and assigned to the corps of Gen. Fitzhugh Lee at Jacksonville, Fla. Although his regiment saw no active service during the war, it was held in readiness for that purpose, and, on the occupation of Cuba in December, 1898, it became a part of the army of occupation. As Colonel Campbell remained with his regiment, he took no part in the proceedings of the last term of the Fifty-fifth Congress, and was not a candidate for re-election in 1898.

CAMPBELL, Thompson, Secretary of State and Congressman, was born in Chester County, Pa., in 1811; removed in childhood to the western part of the State and was educated at Jefferson College, afterwards reading law at Pittsburg. Soon after being admitted to the bar he removed to Galena, Ill., where he had acquired some mining interests, and, in 1843, was appointed Secretary of State by Governor Ford, but resigned in 1846, and became a Delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1847; in 1850 was elected as a Democrat to Congress from the Galena District, but defeated for re-election in 1852 by E. B. Washburne. He was then appointed by President Pierce Commissioner to look after certain land grants by the Mexican Government in California, removing to that State in 1853, but resigned this position about 1855 to engage in general practice. In 1859 he made an extended visit to Europe with his family, and, on his return, located in Chicago, the following year becoming a candidate for Presidential Elector-at-large on the Breckinridge ticket; in 18G1 returned to California, and, on the breaking out of the Civil War, became a zealous champion of the Union cause, by his speeches exerting a powerful influence upon the destiny of the State. He also served in the California Legislature during the war, and, in 1864, was a member of the Baltimore Convention which nominated Mr. Lincoln for the Presidency a second time, assisting most ably in the subsequent campaign to carry the State for the Republican ticket. Died in San Francisco, Dec. 6, 1868.

CAMPBELL, William J., lawyer and politician, was born in Philadelphia in 1850. When he was two years old his father removed to Illinois, settling in Cook County. After passing through the Chicago public schools, Mr. Campbell attended the University of Pennsylvania, for two years, after which he studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1875. From that date he was in active practice and attained prominence at the Chicago bar. In 1878 he was elected State Senator, and was re-elected in 1882, serving in all eight years. At the sessions of 1881, '83 and '85 he was chosen President pro tempore of the Senate, and, on Feb. 6, 1883, he became Lieutenant-Governor upon the accession of Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton to the executive office to succeed Shelby M. Cullom, who had been elected United States Senator. In 1888 he represented the First Illinois District in the National Republican Convention, and was the same year chosen a member of the Republican National Committee for Illinois and was re-elected in 1882. Died in Chicago, March 4, 1896. For several years immediately preceding his death, Mr. Campbell was the chief attorney of the Armour Packing Company of Chicago.

CAMP POINT, a village in Adams County, at the intersection of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy and the Wabash Railroads, 22 miles east-northeast of Quincy. It is a grain center, has one flour mill, two feed mills, one elevator, a pressed brick plant, two banks, four churches, a high school, and one newspaper. Population (1890), 1,150; (1900), 1,260; (1910), 1,148.

CANAL SCRIP FRAUD. During the session of the Illinois General Assembly of 1859, Gen. Jacob Fry, who, as Commissioner or Trustee, had been associated with the construction of the Illinois & Michigan Canal from 1837 to 1845, had his attention called to a check purporting to have been issued by the Commissioners in 1839, which, upon investigation, he became convinced was counterfeit, or had been fraudulently issued. Having communicated his conclusions to Hon. Jesse K. Dubois, the State Auditor, in charge of the work of refunding the State indebtedness, an inquiry was instituted in the office of the Fund Commissioner—a position attached to the Governor's office, but in the charge of a secretary— which developed the fact that a large amount of these evidences of indebtedness had been taken up through that office and bonds issued therefor by the State Auditor under the laws for funding the State debt. A subsequent investigation by the Finance Committee of the State Senate, ordered by vote of that body, resulted in the discovery that, in May and August, 1839, two series of canal "scrip" (or checks) had been issued by the Canal Board, to meet temporary demands in the work of construction — the sum aggregating $269,059—of which all but $316 had been redeemed within a few years at the Chicago branch of the Illinois State Bank. The bank officers testified that this scrip (or a large part of it) had, after redemption, been held by them in the bank vaults without cancellation until settlement was had with the Canal Board, when it was packed in boxes and turned over to the Board. After having lain in the canal office for several years in this condition, and a new "Trustee" (as the officer in charge was now called) having come into the canal office in 1853, this scrip, with other papers, was repacked in a shoe-box and a trunk and placed in charge of Joel A. Matteson, then Governor, to be taken by him to Springfield and deposited there. Nothing further was known of these papers until October, 1854, when $300 of the scrip was presented to the Secretary of the Fund Commissioner by a Springfield banker, and bond issued thereon. This was followed in 1856 and 1857 by larger sums, until, at the time the legislative investigation was instituted, it was found that bonds to the amount of $223,182.66 had been issued on account of principal and interest. With the exception of the $300 first presented, it was shown that all the scrip so funded had been presented by Governor Matteson, either while in office or subsequent to his retirement, and the bonds issued therefor delivered to him—although none of the persons in whose names the issue was made were known or ever afterward discovered. The developments made by the Senate Finance Committee led to an offer from Matteson to indemnify the State, in which he stated that he had "unconsciously and innocently been made the instrument through whom a gross fraud upon the State had been attempted." He therefore gave to the State mortgages and an indemnifying bond for the sum shown to have been funded by him of this class of indebtedness, upon which the State, on foreclosure a few years later, secured judgment for $255,000, although the property on being sold realized only $238,000. A further investigation by the Legislature, in 1861, revealed the fact that additional issues of bonds for similar scrip had been made amounting to $165,346, for which the State never received any compensation. A search through the State House for the trunk and box placed it in the hands of Governor Matteson in 1853, while the official investigation was in progress, resulted in the discovery of the trunk in a condition showing it had been opened, but the box was never found. The fraud was made the subject of a protracted investigation by the Grand Jury of Sangamon County in May, 1859, and, although the jury twice voted to indict Governor Matteson for larceny, it as often voted to reconsider, and, on a third ballot, voted to "ignore the bill."

CANBY, Richard Spring, jurist, was born in Green County, Ohio, Sept. 30, 1808; was educated at Miami University and admitted to the bar, afterwards serving as Prosecuting Attorney, member of the Legislature and one term (1847-49) in Congress. In 1863 he removed to Illinois, locating at Olney, was elected Judge of the Twenty-fifth Judicial Circuit in 1867, resuming practice at the expiration of his term in 1873. Died in Richland County, July 27, 1895. Judge Canby was a relative of Gen. Edward Richard Spriggs Canby, who was treacherously killed by the Modocs in California in 1873.

CANNON, Joseph G., Congressman, was born at Guilford, N. C, May 7, 1836, and removed to Illinois in early youth, locating at Danville, Vermilion County. By profession he is a lawyer, and served as State's Attorney of Vermilion County for two terms (1861-68). Incidentally, he is conducting a large banking business at Danville. In 1872 he was elected as a Republican to the Forty-third Congress for the Fifteenth District, and has been re-elected biennially ever since, except in 1890, when he was defeated for the Fifty-second Congress by Samuel T. Busey, his Democratic opponent. He is now (1898) serving his twelfth term as the Representative for the Twelfth Congressional District, and has been re-elected for a thirteenth term in the Fifty-sixth Congress (1899-1901). Mr. Cannon has been an influential factor in State and National politics, as shown by the fact that he has been Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations during the important sessions of the Fifty-fourth and Fifty-fifth Congresses.

CANTON, a flourishing city in Fulton County, 12 miles from the Illinois River, and 28 miles southwest of Peoria. It is the commercial metropolis of one of the largest and richest counties in the "corn belt"; also has abundant supplies of timber and clay for manufacturing purposes. There are coal mines within the municipal limits, and various manufacturing establishments. Among the principal outputs are agricultural implements, flour, brick and tile, cigars, cigar boxes, foundry and machine-shop products, firearms, brooms, and marble. The city is lighted by gas and electricity, has water-works, fire department, a public library, six ward schools and one high school, and three newspapers. Population (1890), 5,604; (1900), 6,564; (1910), 10,453.

CAPPS, Jabez, pioneer, was born in London, England, Sept. 9, 1796; came to the United States in 1817, and to Sangamon County, Ill., in 1819. For a time he taught school in what is now called Round Prairie, in the present County of Sangamon, and later in Calhoun (the original name of a part of the city of Springfield), having among his pupils a number of those who afterwards became prominent citizens of Central Illinois. In 1836, in conjunction with two partners, he laid out the town of Mount Pulaski, the original county-seat of Logan County, where he continued to live for the remainder of his life, and where, during its later period, he served as Postmaster some fifteen years. He also served as Recorder of Logan County four years. Died, April 1, 1896, in the 100th year of his age.

CARBONDALE, a city in Jackson County, founded in 1852, 57 miles north of Cairo, and 91 miles from St. Louis. Three lines of railway center here. The chief industries are coal-mining, farming, stock-raising, fruit-growing and lumbering. It has two preserving plants, eight churches, one daily and two weekly papers, public schools, and is the seat of the Southern Illinois Normal University. Pop. (1910), 5,441.

CARBONDALE & SHAWNEETOWN RAILROAD, a short line 17 miles in length, extending from Marion to Carbondale, and operated by the St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad Company, as lessee. It was incorporated as, the Murphysboro & Shawneetown Railroad in 1867; its name changed in 1869 to The Carbondale & Shawneetown, was opened for business, Dec. 31, 1871, and leased in 1886 for 980 years to the St. Louis Southern, through which it passed into the hands of the St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad, and by lease from the latter, in 1896, became apart of the Illinois Central System (which see).

CAREY, William, lawyer, was born in the town of Turner, Maine, Dec. 29, 1826; studied law with General Fessenden and at Yale Law School, was admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court of Maine in 1856, the Supreme Court of Illinois in 1857, and the Supreme Court of the United States, on motion of Hon. Lyman Trumbull, in 1871}. Judge Carey was a member of the State Constitutional Convention of 1869-70 from Jo Daviess County, and the choice of the Republicans in that body for temporary presiding officer; was elected to the next General Assembly (the Twenty-seventh), serving as Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee through its four sessions; from 1873 to 1876 was United States District Attorney for Utah, still later occupying various offices at Deadwood, Dakota, and in Reno County, Kan. The first office held by Judge Carey in Illinois (that of Superintendent of Schools for the city of Galena) was conferred upon him through the influence of John A. Rawlins, afterwards General Grant's chief-of-staff during the war, and later Secretary of War—although at the time Mr. Rawlins and he were politically opposed. Mr. Carey's present residence is in Chicago.

CARLIN, Thomas, former Governor, was born of Irish ancestry in Fayette County, Ky., July 18, 1789; emigrated to Illinois in 1811, and served as a private in the War of 1812, and as a Captain in the Black Hawk War. While not highly educated, he was a man of strong common sense, high moral standard, great firmness of character and unfailing courage. In 1818 he settled in Greene County, of which he was the first Sheriff; was twice elected State Senator, and was Register of the Land Office at Quincy, when he was elected Governor on the Democratic ticket in 1838. An uncompromising partisan, he nevertheless commanded the respect and good-will of his political opponents. Died at his home in Carrollton, Feb. 14, 1852.

CARLIN, William Passmore, soldier, nephew of Gov. Thomas Carlin, was born at Rich Woods, Greene County, Ill., Nov. 24, 1829. At the age of 21 he graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point, and, in 1855, was attached to the Sixth United States Infantry as Lieutenant. After several years spent in Indian fighting, he was ordered to California, where he was promoted to a captaincy and assigned to recruiting duty. On August 15, 1861, he was commissioned Colonel of the Thirty-eighth Illinois Volunteers. His record during the war was an exceptionally brilliant one. He defeated Gen. Jeff. Thompson at Fredericktown, Mo., Oct. 21, 1861; commanded the District of Southeast Missouri for eighteen months; led a brigade under Slocum in the Arkansas campaign; served with marked distinction in Kentucky and Mississippi; took a prominent part in the battle of Stone River, was engaged in the Tullahoma campaign, at Chattanooga, Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, and, on Feb. 8, 1864, was commissioned Major in the Sixteenth Infantry. He also took part in the Georgia campaign, aiding in the capture of Atlanta, and marching with Sherman to the sea. For gallant service in the assault at Jonesboro, Tenn., Sept. 1, 1864, he was made Colonel in the regular army, and, on March 13, 1865, was brevetted Brigadier-General for meritorious service at Bentonville, N. C, and Major-General for service during the war, retiring with rank of Brigadier-General in 1893. Died in Montana, Oct. 4, 1903, on way home at Carrollton, Ill.

CARLINVILLE, the county-seat of Macoupin County; a city and railroad junction, 57 miles northeast of St. Louis and 38 miles southwest of Springfield. Blackburn University (which see) is located here. Three coal mines are operated, and there are brick works, tile works, and one daily and two weekly newspapers. The city is an important trade center, has banks, gas and electric light plants and water-works. Pop. (1900), 3,502; (1910), 3,616.

CARLYLE, the county-seat of Clinton County, 48 miles east of St. Louis, located on the Kaskaskia River and the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railroad. The town has churches, parochial and public schools, water-works, lighting plant, and manufactures. It has a flourishing seminary for young ladies, two weekly papers, and a public library connected with the high school. Population (1890), 1,784; (1900), 1,874; (1910), 1,982.

CARMI, the county-seat of White County, on the Little Wabash River, 124 miles east of St. Louis and 38 west of Evansville, Ind. The surrounding country is fertile, yielding both cereals and fruit. Flouring mills and lumber manufacturing, including the making of staves, are the chief industries, though the city has brick and tile works, a plow factory and foundry. Population (1890), 2,785; (1900), 2,939; (1910), 2,833.

CARPENTER, Milton, legislator and State Treasurer; entered upon public life in Illinois as Representative in the Ninth General Assembly (1834) from Hamilton County, serving by successive re-elections in the Tenth, Eleventh and Twelfth. While a member of the latter (1841) he was elected by the Legislature to the office of State Treasurer, retaining this position until the adoption of the Constitution of 1848, when he was chosen his own successor by popular vote, but died a few days after the election in August, 1848. He was buried in what is now known as the "Old Hutchinson Cemetery" — a burying ground in the west part of the city of Springfield, long since abandoned—where his remains still lie (1897) in a grave unmarked by a tombstone.

CARPENTER, Philo, pioneer and early druggist, was born of Puritan and Revolutionary ancestry in the town of Savoy, Mass., Feb. 27, 1805; engaged as a druggist's clerk at Troy, N. Y., in 1828, and came to Chicago in 1832, where he established himself in the drug business, which was later extended into other lines. Soon after his arrival, he began investing in lands, which have since become immensely valuable. Mr. Carpenter was associated with the late Rev. Jeremiah Porter in the organization of the First Presbyterian Church of Chicago, but, in 1851, withdrew on account of dissatisfaction with the attitude of some of the representatives of that denomination on the subject of slavery, identifying himself with the Congregationalist Church, in which he had been reared. He was one of the original founders and most liberal benefactors of the Chicago Theological Seminary, to which he gave in contributions, during his lifetime, or in bequests after his death, sums aggregating not far from $100,000. One of the Seminary buildings was named in his honor, "Carpenter Hall." He was identified with various other organizations, one of the most important being the Relief and Aid Society, which did such useful work after the fire of 1871. By a life of probity, liberality and benevolence, he won the respect of all classes, dying, August 7, 1886.

CARPENTER, (Mrs.) Sarah L. Warren, pioneer teacher, born in Fredonia, N. Y., Sept. 1, 1813; at the age of 13 she began teaching at State Line, N. Y.; in 1833 removed with her parents (Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Warren) to Chicago, and soon after began teaching in what was called the "Yankee settlement," now the town of Lockport, Will County. She came to Chicago the following year (1834) to take the place of assistant of Granville T. Sproat in a school for boys, and is said to have been the first teacher paid out of the public funds in Chicago, though Miss Eliza Chappell (afterwards Mrs. Jeremiah Porter) began teaching the children about Fort Dearborn in 1833. Miss Warren married Abel E. Carpenter, whom she survived, dying at Aurora, Kane County, Jan. 10, 1897.

CARPENTERSVILLE, a village of Kane County and manufacturing center, on Lake Geneva branch of the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad miles north of East Elgin and about 48 miles from Chicago. Pop. (1900), 1,002; (1910), 1,128.

CARR, Clark E., lawyer, politician and diplomat, was born at Boston, Erie County, N. Y., May 20, 1836; at 13 years of age accompanied his father's family to Galesburg, Ill., where he spent several years at Knox College. In 1857 he graduated from the Albany Law School, but on returning to Illinois, soon embarked in politics, his affiliations being uniformly with the Republican party. His first office was that of Postmaster at Galesburg, to which he was appointed by President Lincoln in 1861 and which he held for twenty-four years. He was a tried and valued assistant of Governor Yates during the War of the Rebellion, serving on the staff of the latter with the rank of Colonel. He was a delegate to the National Convention of his party at Baltimore in 1864, which renominated Lincoln, and took an active part in the campaigns of that year, as well as those of 1868 and 1872. In 1869 he purchased "The Galesburg Republican," which he edited and published for two years. In 1880 he was an unsuccessful candidate for the Republican nomination for Governor; in 1884 was a delegate to the Republican National Convention, from the State-at-large, and, in 1887, a candidate for the caucus nomination for United States Senator, which was given to Charles B. Farwell. In 1888 he was defeated in the Republican State Convention as candidate for Governor by Joseph W. Fifer. In 1889 President Harrison appointed him Minister to Denmark, which post he filled with marked ability and credit to the country until his resignation was accepted by President Cleveland, when he returned to his former home at Galesburg. While in Denmark he did much to promote American trade with that country, especially in the introduction of American corn as an article of food, which has led to a large increase in the annual exportation of this commodity to Scandinavian markets.

CARR, Eugene A., soldier, was born in Erie County, N. Y., May 20, 1830, and graduated at West Point in 1850, entering the Mounted Rifles. Until 1861 he was stationed in the Far West, and engaged in Indian fighting, earning a First Lieutenancy through his gallantry. In 1861 he entered upon active service under General Lyon, in Southwest Missouri, taking part in the engagements of Dug Springs and Wilson's Creek, winning the brevet of Lieutenant-Colonel. In September, 1861, he was commissioned Colonel of the Third Illinois Cavalry. He served as acting Brigadier-General in Fremont's hundred-day expedition, for a time commanding the Fourth Division of the Army of the Southwest. On the second day at Pea Ridge, although three times wounded, he remained on the field seven hours, and materially aided in securing a victory, for his bravery being made Brigadier-General of Volunteers. In the summer of 1862 he was promoted to the rank of Major in the Regular Army. During the Vicksburg campaign he commanded a division, leading the attack at Magnolia Church, at Port Gibson, and at Big Black River, and winning a brevet Lieutenant-Colonelcy in the United States Army. He also distinguished himself for a first and second assault upon taking Vicksburg, and, in the autumn of 1862, commanded the left wing of the Sixteenth Corps at Corinth. In December of that year he was transferred to the Department of Arkansas, where he gained new laurels, being brevetted Brigadier-General for gallantry at Little Rock, and Major-General for services during the war. After the close of the Civil War, he was stationed chiefly in the West, where he rendered good service in the Indian campaigns. In 1894 he was retired with the rank of Brigadier-General, and died in Washington, D. C, Dec. 2, 1910.

CARRIEL, Henry F., M.D., alienist, was born at Charlestown, N. H., and educated at Marlow Academy, N. H., and Wesleyan Seminary, Vt.; graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York City, in 1857, and immediately accepted the position of Assistant Physician in the New Jersey State Lunatic Asylum, remaining until 1870. Meanwhile, however, he visited a large number of the leading hospitals and asylums of Europe. In 1870, Dr. Carriel received the appointment of Superintendent of the Illinois Central Hospital for the Insane at Jacksonville, a position which he continued to fill until 1893, when he tendered his resignation to Gov. Altgeld, retiring July 1 of that year. Died June 21, 1908.—Mrs. Mary Turner (Carriel), wife of Dr. Carriel, and a daughter of Prof. Jonathan B. Turner of Jacksonville, was elected a Trustee of the University of Illinois on the Republican ticket in 1896, receiving a plurality of 148,039 over Julia Holmes Smith, her highest competitor.

CARROLL COUNTY, originally a part of Jo Daviess County, but set apart and organized in 1839, named for Charles Carroll of Carrollton. The first settlements were in and around Savanna, Cherry Grove and Arnold's Grove. The first County Commissioners were Messrs. L. H. Bor den, Garner Moffett and S. M. Jersey, who held their first court at Savanna, April 13, 1839. In 1843 the county-seat was changed from Savanna to Mount Carroll, where it yet remains. Townships were first organized in 1850, and the development of the county has steadily pro gressed since that date. The surface of the land is rolling, and at certain points decidedly picturesque. The land is generally good for farming. It is well timbered, particularly along the Mississippi. Area of the county, 450 square miles; population, 18,035. Mount Carroll is a pleasant, prosperous, wide-awake town, of about 2,000 inhabitants, and noted for its excellent public and private schools.

CARROLLTON, the county-seat of Greene County, situated on the west branch of the Chicago & Alton and the Quincy, Carrollton & St. Louis Railroads, 33 miles north-northwest of Alton, and 34 miles south by west from Jacksonville. The town has a foundry, carriage and wagon factory, two machine shops, two flour mills, two banks, six churches, a high school, and two weekly newspapers. Population (1890), 2,258; (1900), 2,355; (1910), 2,323.

CARTER, Joseph N., Justice of the Supreme Court, was born in Hardin County, Ky., March 12, 1843; came to Illinois in boyhood, and, after attending school at Tuscola four years, engaged in teaching until 1863, when he entered Illinois College, graduating in 1866; in 1868 graduated from the Law Department of the University of Michigan, the next year establishing himself in practice at Quincy, where he has since resided. He was a member of the Thirty-first and Thirty-second General Assemblies (1878-82), and, in June, 1894, was elected to the seat on the Supreme Bench, which he now occupies.

CARTER, Thomas Henry, United States Senator, born in Scioto County, Ohio, Oct, 30, 1854; in his fifth year was brought to Illinois, his father locating at Pana, where he was educated in the public schools; was employed in farming, railroading and teaching several years, then studied law and was admitted to the bar, and, in 1882, removed to Helena, Mont., where he engaged in practice; was elected, as a Republican the last Territorial Delegate to Congress from Idaho and the first Representative from the new State; was Commissioner of the General Land Office (1891-92), and, in 1895, was elected to the United States Senate for the term ending in 1901. In 1892 he was chosen Chairman of the Republican National Committee, serving until the St. Louis Convention of 1896.

CARTERVILLE, a city in Williamson County, 10 miles by rail northwest of Marion. Coal mining is the principal industry. It has a bank, five churches, a public school, and two weekly newspapers Population (1880), 692; (1890), 969; (1900), 1,749; (1910), 2,971.

CARTHAGE, a city and the county-seat of Hancock County, 13 miles east of Keokuk, Iowa, on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy and the Wabash Railroads; has water-works, electric lights, three banks, four trust companies, four weekly papers, and is the seat of a Lutheran College. Pop. (1890), 1,654; (1900), 2,104; (1910), 2,373.

CARTHAGE COLLEGE, at Carthage, Hancock County, incorporated in 1871; has a teaching faculty of twelve members, and reports 158 pupils—sixty-eight men and ninety women—for 1897-98. It has a library of 5,000 volumes and endowment of $32,000 Instruction is given in the classical, scientific, musical, fine arts and business departments, as well as in preparatory studies. In 1898 this institution reported a property valuation of $41,000, of which $35,000 was in real estate.

CARTHAGE & BURLINGTON RAILROAD. (See Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad.)

CARTWRIGHT, James Henry, Justice of the Supreme Court, was born at Maquoketa, Iowa, Dec. 1, 1842 — the son of a frontier Methodist clergyman; was educated at Rock River Seminary and the University of Michigan, graduating from the latter in 1867; began practice in 1870 at Oregon, Ogle County, which is still his home; in 1888 was elected Circuit Judge to succeed Judge Eustace, deceased, and in 1891 assigned to Appellate Court duty; in December, 1895, was elected Justice of the Supreme Court to succeed Justice John M. Bailey, deceased, and re-elected in 1897.

CARTWRIGHT, Peter, pioneer Methodist preacher, was born in Amherst County, Va., Sept. 1, 1785, and at the age of five years accompanied his father (a Revolutionary veteran) to Logan County, Ky. The country was wild and unsettled, there were no schools, the nearest mill was 40 miles distant, the few residents wore homespun garments of flax or cotton; and coffee, tea and sugar in domestic use were almost unknown. Methodist circuit riders soon invaded the district, and, at a camp meeting held at Cane Ridge in 1801, Peter received his first religious impressions. A few months later he abandoned his reckless life, sold his race-horse and abjured gambling. He began preaching immediately after his conversion, and, in 1803, was regularly received into the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church, although only 18 years old. In 1823 he removed to Illinois, locating in Sangamon County, then but sparsely settled. In 1828, and again in 1832, he was elected to the Legislature, where his homespun wit and undaunted courage stood him in good stead. For a long series of years he attended annual conferences (usually as a delegate), and was a conspicuous figure at camp-meetings. Although a Democrat all his life, he was an uncompromising antagonist of slavery, and rejoiced at the division of his denomination in 1844. He was also a zealous supporter of the Government during the Civil War. In 1846 he was a candidate for Congress on the Democratic ticket, but was defeated by Abraham Lincoln. He was a powerful preacher, a tireless worker, and for fifty years served as a Presiding Elder of his denomination. On the lecture platform, his quaintness and eccentricity, together with his inexhaustible fund of personal anecdotes, insured an interested audience. Numerous stories are told of his physical prowess in overcoming unruly characters whom he had failed to convince by moral suasion. Inside the church he was equally fearless and outspoken, and his strong common sense did much to promote the success of the denomination in the West. He died at his home near Pleasant Plains, Sangamon County, Sept. 25, 1872. His principal published works are "A Controversy with the Devil" (1853), "Autobiography of Peter Cartwright" (1856), "The Backwoods Preacher" (London, 1869), and several works on Methodism.

CARY, Eugene, lawyer and insurance manager, was born at Boston, Erie County, N. Y., Feb. 20, 1835; began teaching at sixteen, meanwhile attending a select school or academy at intervals; studied law at Sheboygan, Wis., and Buffalo, N. Y., 1855-56; served as City Attorney and later as County Judge, and, in 1861, enlisted in the First Regiment Wisconsin Volunteers, serving as a Captain in the Army of the Cumberland, and the last two years as Judge-Advocate on the staff of General Rousseau. After the war he settled at Nashville, Tenn., where he held the office of Judge of the First District, but in 1871 he was elected to the City Council, and, in 1883, was the High-License candidate for Mayor in opposition to Mayor Harrison, and believed by many to have been honestly elected, but counted out by machine methods. Died Mar. 9, 1901.

CASAD, Anthony Wayne, clergyman and physician, was born in Wantage Township, Sussex County, N. J., May 2, 1791; died at Summerfield, Ill., Dec. 16, 1857. His father, Rev. Thomas Casad, was a Baptist minister, who, with his wife, Abigail Tingley, was among the early settlers of Sussex County. He was descended from Dutch-Huguenot ancestry, the family name being originally Cossart, the American branch having been founded by Jacques Cossart, who emigrated from Leyden to New York in 1663. At the age of 19 Anthony removed to Greene County, Ohio, settling at Fairfield, near the site of the present city of Dayton, where some of his relatives were then residing. On Feb. 6, 1811, he married Anna, eldest daughter of Captain Samuel Stites and Martha Martin Stites, her mother's father and grandfather having been patriot soldiers in the War of the Revolution. Anthony Wayne Casad served as a volunteer from Ohio in the War of 1812, being a member of Captain Wm. Stephenson's Company. In 1818 he removed with his wife's father to Union Grove, St. Clair County, Ill. A few years later he entered the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and during 1821-23 was stationed at Kaskaskia and Buffalo, removing, in 1823, to Lebanon, where he taught school. Later he studied medicine and attained considerable prominence as a practitioner, being commissioned Surgeon of the Forty-ninth Illinois Infantry in 1835. He was one of the founders of McKendree College and a liberal contributor to its support; was also for many years Deputy Superintendent of Schools at Lebanon, served as County Surveyor of St. Clair County, and acted as agent for Harper Brothers in the sale of Southern Illinois lands. He was a prominent Free Mason and an influential citizen. His youngest daughter, Amanda Keziah, married Rev. Colin D. James (which see).

CASEY, a city of Clark County, at the intersection of the Vandalia Line and the Chicago & Ohio River Railroad, 35 miles southwest of Terra Haute; in oilfield. Pop. (1900), 1,500; (1910), 2,157.

CASEY, Zadoc, pioneer and early Congressman, was born in Georgia, March 17, 1796, the youngest, son of a soldier of the Revolutionary War who removed to Tennessee about 1800. The subject of this sketch came to Illinois in 1817, bringing with him his widowed mother, and settling in the vicinity of the present city of Mount Vernon, in Jefferson County, where he acquired great prominence as a politician and became the head of an influential family. He began preaching at an early age, and continued to do so occasionally through his political career. In 1819, he took a prominent part in the organization of Jefferson County, serving on the first Board of County Commissioners; was an unsuccessful candidate for the Legislature in 1820, but was elected Representative in 1822 and re-elected two years later; in 1826 was advanced to the Senate, serving until 1830, when he was elected Lieutenant-Governor, and during his incumbency took part in the Black Hawk War. On March 1, 1833, he resigned the Lieutenant-Governorship to accept a seat as one of the three Congressmen from Illinois, to which he had been elected a few months previous, being subsequently re-elected for four consecutive terms. In 1842 he was again a candidate, but was defeated by John A. McClernand. Other public positions held by him included those of Delegate to the Constitutional Conventions of 1847 and 1862, Representative in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth General Assemblies (1848-52), serving as Speaker in the former. He was again elected to the Senate in 1860, but died before the expiration of his term, Sept. 4, 1862. During the latter years of his life he was active in securing the right of way for the Ohio & Mississippi Railroad, the original of the Mississippi division of the Baltimore, Ohio & Southwestern. He commenced life in poverty, but acquired a considerable estate, and was the donor of the ground upon which the Supreme Court building for the Southern Division at Mount Vernon was erected. — Dr. Newton R. (Casey), son of the preceding, was born in Jefferson County, Ill., Jan. 27, 1826, received his primary education in the local schools and at Hillsboro and Mount Vernon Academies; in 1842 entered the Ohio University at Athens in that State, remaining until 1845, when he commenced the study of medicine, taking a course of lectures the following year at the Louisville Medical Institute; soon after began practice, and, in 1847, removed to Benton, Ill., returning the following year to Mount Vernon. In 1856-57 he attended a second course of lectures at the Missouri Medical College, St. Louis, the latter year removing to Mound City, where he filled a number of positions, including that of Mayor from 1859 to 1864, when he declined a re-election. In 1860, Dr. Casey served as delegate from Illinois to the Democratic National Convention at Charleston, S. C, and, on the establishment of the United States Government Hospital at Mound City, in 1861, acted for some time as a volunteer surgeon, later serving as Assistant Surgeon. In 1866, he was elected Representative in the Twenty-fifth General Assembly and re-elected in 1868, when he was an unsuccessful Democratic candidate for Speaker in opposition to Hon. S. M. Cullom; also again served as Representative in the Twenty-eighth General Assembly (1872-74). Since retiring from public life Dr. Casey has given his attention to the practice of his profession. — Col. Thomas S. (Casey), another son, was born in Jefferson County, Ill., April 6, 1832, educated in the common schools and at McKendree College, in due course receiving the degree of A.M. from the latter; studied law for three years, being admitted to the bar in 1854; in 1860, was elected State's Attorney for the Twelfth Judicial District; in September, 1862, was commissioned Colonel of the One Hundred and Tenth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, but was mustered out May 16, 1863, having in the meantime taken part in the battle of Stone River and other important engagements in Western Tennessee. By this time his regiment, having been much reduced in numbers, was consolidated with the Sixtieth Illinois Volunteer Infantry. In 1864, he was again elected State's Attorney, serving until 1868; in 1870, was chosen Representative, and, in 1872, Senator for the Mount Vernon District for a term of four years. In 1879, he was elected Circuit Judge and was immediately assigned to Appellate Court duty, soon after the expiration of his term, in 1885, removing to Springfield, where he died, March 1, 1891.

CASS COUNTY, situated a little west of the center of the State, with an area of 460 square miles and a population (1910) of 17,372—named for Gen. Lewis Cass. French traders are believed to have made the locality of Beardstown, their headquarters about the time of the discovery of the Illinois country. The earliest permanent white settlers came about 1820, and among them were Thomas Beard, Martin L. Lindsley, John Cetrough and Archibald Job. As early as 1821 there was a horse-mill on Indian Creek, and, in 1827, M. L. Lindsley conducted a school on the bluffs. Peter Cartwright, the noted Methodist missionary and evangelist, was one of the earliest preachers, and among the pioneers may be named Messrs. Robertson, Toplo, McDonald, Downing, Davis, Shepherd, Penny, Bergen and Hopkins. Beardstown was the original county-seat, and during both the Black Hawk and Mormon troubles was a depot of supplies and rendezvous for troops. Here also Stephen A. Douglas made his first political speech. The site of the town, as at present laid out, was at one time sold by Mr. Downing for twenty-five dollars. The county was set off from Morgan in 1837. The principal towns are Beardstown, Virginia, Chandlerville, Ashland and Arenzville. The county-seat, formerly at Beardstown, was later removed to Virginia, where it now is. Beardstown was incorporated in 1837, with about 700 inhabitants. Virginia was platted in 1836, but not incorporated until 1842.

CASTLE, Orlando Lane, educator, was born at Jericho, Vt., July 26,1822; graduated at Denison University, Ohio, 1846,- spent one year as tutor there, and, for several years, had charge of the public schools of Zanesville, Ohio. In 1858, he accepted the chair of Rhetoric, Oratory and Belles-Lettres in Shurtleff College, at Upper Alton, Ill., remaining until his death, Jan. 31, 1892. Professor Castle received the degree of LL.D. from Denison University in 1877.

CATHERWOOD, Mary Hartwell, author, was born (Hartwell) in Luray, Ohio, Dec. 16, 1844; educated at the Female College, Granville, Ohio, where she graduated, in 1868, and, in 1887, was married to James S. Catherwood, with whom she resided at Hoopeston, Ill. Mrs. Catherwood was the author of a number of works of fiction, which have been accorded a high rank. Among her earlier productions are "Craque-o'-Doom" (1881), "Rocky Fork" (1882), "Old Caravan Days" (1884), "The Secrets at Roseladies" (1888), "The Romance of Dollard" and "The Bells of St. Anne" (1889). During her last few years she had shown a predilection for subjects connected with early Illinois history, and had published popular romances under the title of "The Story of Tonty," "The White Islander," "The Lady, of Fort St. John," "Old Kaskaskia" and "The Chase of Sant Castin and other Stories of the French in the New World." Died Dec. 26, 1902.

CATON, John Dean, early lawyer and jurist, was born in Monroe County, N. Y., March 19, 1812. Left to the care of a widowed mother at an early age, his childhood was spent in poverty and manual labor. At 15 he was set to learn a trade, but an infirmity of sight compelled him to abandon it. After a brief attendance at an academy at Utica, where he studied law between the ages of 19 and 21, in 1833 he removed to Chicago, and shortly afterward, on a visit to Pekin, was examined and licensed to practice by Judge Stephen T. Logan. In 1834, he was elected Justice of the Peace, served as Alderman in 1837-38, and sat upon the bench of the Supreme Court from 1842 to 1864, when he resigned, having served nearly twenty-two years. During this period he more than once occupied the position of Chief-Justice. Being embarrassed by the financial stringency of 1837-38, in the latier year he entered a tract of land near Plainfield, and, taking his family with him, began farming. Later in life, while a resident of Ottawa, he became interested in the construction of telegraph lines in the West, which for a time bore his name and were ultimately incorporated in the "Western Union," laying the foundation of a large fortune. On retiring from the bench, he devoted himself for the remainder of his life to his private affairs, to travel, and to literary labors. Among his published works are "The Antelope and Deer of America," "A Summer in Norway," "Miscellanies," and "Early Bench and Bar of Illinois." Died in Chicago, July 30, 1895.

CAVARLY, Alfred W., early lawyer and legislator, was born in Connecticut, Sept. 15, 1793; served as a soldier in the War of 1812, and, in 1822, came to Illinois, first settling at Edwardsville, and soon afterwards at Carrollton, Greene County. Here he was elected Representative in the Fifth General Assembly (1826), and again to the Twelfth (1840); also served as Senator in the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Assemblies (1842-48), acting, in 1845, as one of the Commissioners to revise the statutes. In 1844, he was chosen a Presidential Elector, and, in 1846, was a prominent candidate for the Democratic nomination for Governor, but was defeated in convention by Augustus C. French. Mr. Cavarly was prominent both in his profession and in the Legislature while a member of that body. In 1853, he removed to Ottawa, where he resided until his death, Oct. 25, 1876.

CENTRAL CITY, a village of Marion County, on the Illinois Central Railroad, just north of Centralia; in a mining region. Pop. (1910), 1,179.

CENTRAL HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE, established under act of the Legislature passed March 1, 1847, and located at Jacksonville, Morgan County. Its founding was largely due to the philanthropic efforts of Miss Dorothea L. Dix, who addressed the people from the platform and appeared before the General Assembly in behalf of this class of unfortunates. Construction of the building was begun in 1848. By 1851 two wards were ready for occupancy, and the first patient was received in November of that year. The first Superintendent was Dr. J. M. Higgins, who served less than two years, when he was succeeded by Dr. H. K. Jones, who had been Assistant Superintendent. Dr. Jones remained as Acting Superintendent for several months, when the place was filled by the appointment of Dr. Andrew McFarland of New Hampshire, his administration continuing until 1870, when he resigned on account of ill-health, being succeeded by Dr. Henry F. Carriel of New Jersey. Dr. Carriel tendered his resignation in 1893, and, after one or two further changes, in 1897 Dr. F. C. Winslow, who had been Assistant Superintendent under Dr. Carriel, was placed in charge of the institution. The original plan of construc¬tion provided for a center building, five and a half stories high, and two wings with a rear extension in which were to be the chapel, kitchen and employes' quarters. Subsequently these wings were greatly enlarged, permitting an increase in the number of wards, and as the exigencies of the institution demanded, appropriations have been made for the erection of additional buildings. Numerous detached buildings have been erected within the past few years, and the capacity of the institution greatly increased —"The Annex" admitting of the introduction of many new and valuable features in the classification and treatment of patients. The number of inmates of late years has ranged from 1,200 to 1,400. The counties from which patients are received in this institution embrace: Rock Island, Mercer, Henry, Bureau, Putnam, Marshall, Stark, Knox, Warren, Henderson, Hancock, McDonough, Fulton, Peoria, Tazewell, Logan, Mason, Menard, Cass, Schuyler, Adams, Pike, Calhoun, Brown, Scott, Morgan, Sangamon, Christian, Montgomery, Macoupin, Greene and Jersey.

CENTRALIA, a city and railway center of Marion County, 250 miles south of Chicago. It forms a trade center for the famous "fruit belt" of Southern Illinois; has a number of coal mines, oil and gas wells, a glass plant, iron foundries, railroad repair shops, flour and rolling mills, and an ice plant; also has water-works and sewerage system, a fire department, two daily and weekly papers, and excellent graded schools. Several parks afford splendid pleasure resorts. Population (1890), 4,763; (1900), 6,721; (1910), 9,680.

CENTRALIA & ALTAMONT RAILROAD. (See Centralia & Chester Railroad.)

CENTRALIA & CHESTER RAILROAD, a railway line wholly within the State, extending from Salem, in Marion County, to Chester, on the Mississippi River (91.6 miles), with a lateral branch from Sparta to Roxborough (5 miles), and trackage facilities over the Illinois Central from the branch junction to Centralia (2.9 miles)—total, 99.5 miles. The original line was chartered as the Centralia & Chester Railroad, in December, 1887, completed from Sparta to Coulterville in 1889, and consolidated the same year with the Sparta & Evansville and the Centralia & Altamont Railroads (projected); line completed from Centralia to Evansville early in 1894. The branch from Sparta to Rosborough was built in 1895, the section of the main line from Centralia to Salem (14.9 miles) in 1896, and that from Evansville to Chester (17.6 miles) in 1897-98. The road was placed in the hands of a receiver, June 7, 1897, and the expenditures for extension and equipment made under authority granted by the United States Court for the issue of Receiver's certificates. The total capitalization is $2,374,841, of which $978,000 is in stocks and $948,000 in bonds.

CENTRAL MILITARY TRACT RAILROAD. (See Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad.)

CERRO GORDO, a town in Piatt County, 12 miles by rail east-northeast of Decatur. The crop of cereals in the surrounding country is sufficient to support two elevators at Cerro Gordo, which has also a flouring mill, brick and tile factories, etc. There are three churches, graded schools, a bank and one weekly newspaper. Population 1890), 939; (1900), 1,008; (1910), 876.

CHADDOCK COLLEGE, an institution under the patronage of the Methodist Episcopal Church at Quincy, Ill., incorporated in 1878; is co-educational, has a faculty of ten instructors, and reports 127 students—70 male and 57 female—in the classes of 1895-96. Besides the usual departments in literature, science and the classics, instruction is given to classes in theology, music, the fine arts, oratory and preparatory studies. It has property valued at $110,000, and reports an endowment fund of $8,000.

CHAMBERLIN, Thomas Crowder, geologist and educator, was born near Mattoon, Ill., Sept. 25, 1845; graduated at Beloit College, Wisconsin, in 1866: took a course in Michigan University (1868-69); taught in various Wisconsin institutions, also discharged the duties of State Geologist, later filling the chair of Geology at Columbian University, Washington, D. C. In 1878, he was sent to Paris, in charge of the educational exhibits of Wisconsin, at the International Exposition of that year—during his visit making a special study of the Alpine glaciers. In 1887, he was elected President of the University of Wisconsin, serving until 1892, when he became Head Professor of Geology at the University of Chicago, where he still remains. He is also editor of the University "Journal of Geology" and President of the Chicago Academy of Sciences. Professor Chamberlin is author of a number of volumes on educational and scientific subjects, chiefly in the line of geology. He received the degree of LL.D. from the University of Michigan, Beloit College and Columbian University, all on the same date (1887).

CHAMPAIGN, a flourishing city in Champaign County, 128 miles southwest of Chicago and 83 miles northeast of Springfield; is the intersecting point of three lines of railway and connected with the adjacent city of Urbana, the county-seat, by an electric railway. The University of Illinois, located in Urbana, is contiguous to the city. Champaign has an excellent system of water-works, well-paved streets, and is lighted by both gas and electricity. The surrounding country is agricultural, but the city has manufactories of carriages and machines. Three papers are published here, besides a college weekly conducted by the students of the University. The Burnham Hospital and the Garwood Old Ladies' Home are located in Champaign. In the residence portion of the city there is a handsome park, covering ten acres and containing a notable piece of bronze statuary, and several smaller parks in other sections. There are several handsome churches, and excellent schools, both public and private. Pop. (1900), 9,098; (1910), 12,421.

CHAMPAIGN COUNTY, situated in the eastern half of the central belt of the State; area, 1,008 square miles; population (1910), 51,829. The county was organized in 1833, and named for a county in Ohio. The physical conformation is flat, and the soil rich. The county lies in the heart of what was once called the "Grand Prairie." Workable seams of bituminous coal underlie the surface, but overlying quicksands interfere with their operation. The Sangamon and Kaskaskia Rivers have their sources in this region, and several railroads cross the county. The soil is a black muck underlaid by a yellow clay. Urbana (with a population of 5,708 in 1900) is the county-seat. Other important points in the county are Champaign (9,000), Tolono (1,000), and Rantoul (1,200). Champaign and Urbana adjoin each other, and the grounds of the Illinois State University extend into each corporation, being argely situated in Champaign. Large drifted masses of Niagara limestone are found, interspersed with coal measure limestone and sandstone. Alternating beds of clay, gravel and quicksand of the drift formation are found beneath the subsoil to the depth of 150 to 300 feet.

CHAMPAIGN, HAVANA & WESTERN RAILROAD. (See Illinois Central Railroad.)

CHANDLER, Charles, physician, was born at West Woodstock, Conn., July 2, 1806; graduated with the degree of M.D. at Castleton, Vt., and, in 1829, located in Scituate, R. I.; in 1832, started with the intention of settling at Fort Clark (now Peoria), Ill., but was stopped at Beardstown by the "Black Hawk War," finally locating on the Sangamon River, in Cass County, where, in 1848, he laid out the town of Chandlerville—Abraham Lincoln being one of the surveyors who platted the town. Here he gained a large practice, which he was compelled, in his later years, partially to abandon in consequence of injuries received while prosecuting his profession, afterwards turning his attention to merchandising and encouraging the development of the locality in which he lived by promoting the construction of railroads and the building of schoolhouses and churches. Liberal and public-spirited, his influence for good extended over a large region. Died, April 7, 1879.

CHANDLER, Henry B., newspaper manager, was born at Frelighsburg, Quebec, July 12, 1836; at 18 he began teaching, and later took charge of the business department of "The Detroit Free Press"; in 1861, came to Chicago with Wilbur F. Storey and became business manager of "The Chicago Times"; in 1870, disagreed with Storey and retired from newspaper business. Died, at Yonkers, N. Y., Jan. 18, 1896.

CHANDLERVILLE, a village in Cass County, on the Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis Railroad, 7 miles north by east from Virginia, laid out in 1848 by Dr. Charles Chandler, and platted by Abraham Lincoln. It has a bank, a creamery, four churches, a weekly newspaper, a flour and a saw-mill. Pop. (1900), 940; (1910), 884.

CHAPIN, a village of Morgan County, at the intersection of the Wabash and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroads, 10 miles west of Jacksonville. Pop. (1900), 514; (1910), 552.

CHAPPELL, Charles H., railway manager, was born in Du Page County, Ill., March 3, 1841. With an ardent passion for the railroad business, at the age of 16 he obtained a position as freight brakeman on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, being steadily promoted through the ranks of conductor, train-master and dispatcher, until, in 1865, at the age of 24, he was appointed General Agent of the Eastern Division of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. Other railroad positions which Mr. Chappell later held were: Superintendent of a division of the Union Pacific (1869-70); Assistant or Division Superintendent of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, or some of its branches (1870-74); General Superintendent of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas (1874-76); Superintendent of the Western Division of the Wabash (1877-79). In 1880, he accepted the position of Assistant General Superintendent of the Chicago & Alton Railroad, being advanced in the next three years through the grades of General Superintendent and Assistant General Manager, to that of General Manager of the entire system, which he continued to fill for more than twelve years. Quietly and without show or display, Mr. Chappell continued in the discharge of his duties, assisting to make the system with which he was identified one of the most successful in its operation in the country. Died June 22, 1904.

CHARLESTON, the county-seat of Coles County, an incorporated city and a railway junction, 46 miles west of Terre Haute, Ind. It lies in the center of a farming region, yet has several factories, including woolen and flouring mills, broom, plow and carriage factories, a foundry and a canning factory. Three newspapers are published here, issuing daily editions. The Eastern State Normal School was located here in 1895. Pop. (1900), 5,488; (1900), 5,884.

CHARLESTON, PEORIA & ST. LOUIS RAILROAD. (See Toledo, St. Louis & Kansas City Railroad.)

CHARLEVOIX, Pierre Francois Xavier de, a celebrated French traveler and an early explorer of Illinois, born at St. Quentin, France, Oct. 29, 1682. He entered the Jesuit Society, and while a student was sent to Quebec (1695), where for four years he was instructor in the college, and completed his divinity studies. In 1709 he returned to France, but came again to Quebec a few years later. He ascended the St. Lawrence, sailed through Lakes Ontario and Erie, and finally reached the Mississippi by way of the Illinois River. After visiting Cahokia and the surrounding county (1720-21), he continued down the Mississippi to New Orleans, and returned to France by way of Santo Domingo. Besides some works on religious subjects, he was the author of histories of Japan, Paraguay and San Domingo. His great work, however, was the "History of New France," which was not published until twenty years after his death. His journal of his American explorations appeared about the same time. His history has long been cited by scholars as authority, but no English translation was made until 1865, when it was undertaken by Shea. Died in France, Feb. 1, 1761.

CHASE, Philander, Protestant Episcopal Bishop, was born in Cornish, Vt., Dec. 14, 1775, and graduated at Dartmouth in 1795. Although reared as a Congregationalist, he adopted the Episcopal faith, and was ordained a priest in 1799, for several years laboring as a missionary in Northern and Western New York. In 1805, he went to New Orleans, but returning North in 1811, spent six years as a rector at New Haven, Conn., then engaged in missionary work in Ohio, organizing a number of parishes and founding an academy at Worthington; was consecrated a Bishop in 1819, and after a visit to England to raise funds, laid the foundation of Kenyon College and Gambier Theological Seminary, named in honor of two English noblemen who had contributed a large portion of the funds. Differences arising with some of his clergy in reference to the proper use of the funds, he resigned both the Bishopric and the Presidency of the college in 1831, and after three years of missionary labor in Michigan, in 1835 was chosen Bishop of Illinois. Making a second visit to England, he succeeded in raising additional funds, and, in 1838, founded Jubilee College at Robin's Nest, Peoria County, Ill., for which a charter was obtained in 1847. He was a man of great religious zeal, of indomitable perseverance and the most successful pioneer of the Episcopal Church in the West. He was Presiding Bishop from 1843 until his death, which occurred Sept, 20, 1852. Several volumes appeared from his pen, the most important being "A Plea for the West" (1826), and "Reminiscences: an Autobiography, Comprising a History of the Principal Events in the Author's Life" (1848).

CHATHAM, a village of Sangamon County, on the Chicago & Alton Railroad, 9 miles south of Springfield. Pop. (1900), 629; (1910), 666.

CHATSWORTH, town in Livingston County, on Ill. Cent, and Toledo, Peoria & Western Railways, 79 miles east of Peoria; in farming and stock-raising district; has two banks, three grain elevators, five churches, a graded school, two weekly papers, water-works, electric lights, paved streets, cement sidewalks, brick works, and other manufactories. Pop. (1900), 1,038; (1910), 1,112.

CHEBANSE, a town in Iroquois and Kankakee Counties, on the Illinois Central Railroad, 64 miles south-southwest from Chicago; the place has one bank and one newspaper. Population (1880), 728; (1890), 616; (1900), 555; (1910), 590.

CHENEY, Charles Edward, Bishop of the Reformed Protestant Episcopal Church, was born in Canandaigua, N. Y., Feb. 12, 1836; graduated at Hobart in 1857, and began study for the ministry of the Protestant Episcopal Church. Soon after ordination he became rector of Christ Church, Chicago, and was prominent among those who, under the leadership of Assistant Bishop Cummins of Kentucky, organized the Reformed Episcopal Church in 1873. He was elected Missionary Bishop of the Northwest for the new organization, and was consecrated in Christ Church, Chicago, Dec. 14, 1873.

CHENEY, John Yance, author and librarian, was born at Groveland, N. Y., Dec. 29, 1848, though the family home was at Dorset, Vt.. where he grew up and received his primary education. He acquired his academic training at Manchester, Vt., and Temple Hill Academy, Genesee, N. Y., graduating from the latter in 1865, later becoming Assistant Principal of the same institution. Having studied law, he was admitted to the bar successively in Massachusetts and New York; but meanwhile having written considerably for the old "Scribner's Monthly" (now "Century Magazine"), while under the editorship of Dr. J. G. Holland, he gradually adopted literature as a profession. Removing to the Pacific Coast, he took charge, in 1887, of the Free Public Library at San Francisco, remaining until 1894, when he accepted the position of Librarian of the Newberry Library in Chicago, as successor to Dr. William F. Poole, deceased. Besides two or three volumes of verse, Mr. Cheney is the author of numerous essays on literary subjects. His published works include "Thistle-Drift," poems (1887); "Wood-Blooms," poems (1888), "Golden Guess," essays (1892); "That Dome in Air," essays (1895); "Queen Helen." poem (1895) and "Out of the Silence," poem (1897). He is also editor of "Wood Notes Wild," by Simeon Pease Cheney (1892), and Caxton Club's edition of Derby's Phoenixiana.

CHENOA, an incorporated city of McLean County, at the intersecting point of the Toledo, Peoria & Western and the Chicago & Alton Railroads, 48 miles east of Peoria, 23 miles northeast of Bloomington, and 102 miles south of Chicago. Agriculture, dairy farming, fruit-growing and coal-mining are the chief industries of the surrounding region. The city also has an electric light plant, water-works, canning works and tile works, besides two banks, seven churches, a graded school, two weekly papers, and telephone systems connecting with the surrounding country. Pop. (1900), 1,512; (1910), 1,314.

CHESBROUGH, Ellis Sylvester, civil engineer, was born in Baltimore, Md., July 6, 1813; at the age of thirteen was chainman to an engineering party on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, being later employed on other roads. In 1837, he was appointed senior assistant engineer in the construction of the Louisville, Cincinnati & Charleston Railroad, and, in 1846, Chief Engineer of the Boston Waterworks, in 1850 becoming sole Commissioner of the Water Department of that city. In 1855, he became engineer of the Chicago Board of Sewerage Commissioners, and in that capacity designed the sewerage system of the city—also planning the river tunnels. He resigned the office of Commissioner of Public Works of Chicago in 1879. He was regarded as an authority on water-supply and sewerage, and was consulted by the officials of New York, Boston, Toronto, Milwaukee and other cities. Died, August 19, 1886.

CHESNUT, John A., lawyer, was born in Kentucky, Jan. 19, 1816, his father being a native of South Carolina, but of Irish descent. John A. was educated principally in his native State, but came to Illinois in 1836, read law with P. H. Winchester at Carlinville, was admitted to the bar in 1837, and practiced at Carlinville until 1855, when he removed to Springfield and engaged in real estate and banking business. Mr. Chesnut was associated with many local business enterprises, was for several years one of the Trustees of the Institution for the Deaf and Dumb at Jacksonville, also a Trustee of the Illinois Female College (Methodist) at the same place, and was Supervisor of the United States Census for the Sixth District of Illinois in 1880. Died, Jan. 14, 1898.

CHESTER, the county-seat of Randolph County, situated on the Mississippi River, 76 miles south of St. Louis. It is the seat of the Southern Illinois Penitentiary and of the State Asylum for Insane Convicts. It stands in the neart of a region abounding in bituminous coal, and is a prominent shipping point for this commodity; also has quarries of building stone. It has a grain elevator, flouring mills, rolling mills and foundries and two weekly papers. Pop. (1890), 2,708; (1900), 2,832; (1910), 2,747.

CHETLAIN, Augustus Louis, soldier, was born in St. Louis, Mo., Dec. 26, 1824, of French Huguenot stock—his parents having emigrated from Switzerland in 1823, at first becoming members of the Selkirk colony on Red River, in Manitoba. Having received a common school education, he became a merchant at Galena, and was the first to volunteer there in response to the call for troops after the bombardment of Fort Sumter, in 1861, being chosen to the captaincy of a company in the Twelfth Regiment of Illinois Volunteers, which General Grant had declined; participated in the campaign on the Tennessee River which resulted in the capture of Fort Donelson and the battle of Shiloh, meanwhile being commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel; also distinguished himself at Corinth, where he remained in command until May, 1863, and organized the first colored regiment raised in the West. In December, 1863, he was promoted Brigadier-General and placed in charge of the organization of colored troops in Tennessee, serving later in Kentucky and being brevetted Major-General in January, 1864. From January to October, 1865, he commanded the post at Memphis, and later the District of Talladega, Ala., until January, 1866, when he was mustered out of the service. General Chetlain was Assessor of Internal Revenue for the District of Utah (1867-69), then appointed United States Consul at Brussels, serving until 1872, on his return to the United States establishing himself as a banker and broker in Chicago.

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