Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans.
Vol. I-X. Rossiter Johnson, editor. Boston MA: The Biographical Society. 1904.

RANSOM, Thomas Edward Greenfield, soldier, was born in Norwich, Vt., Nov. 29, 1834; son of Col. Truman Bishop (q.v.) and Margaretta Morrison (Greenfield) Ransom. He was educated at Newberry seminary and at Norwich university, 1848-51, completing the course in civil engineering. He worked for some time with his cousin, Benjamin F. Marsh (a graduate of Norwich, 1837), on the Rutland and Burlington railroad, and removed to Peru, Ill., in 1851, where he was a civil engineer, 1851-54, and in the real estate business, 1854-56, subsequently engaging in the latter business in Chicago and in Fayette county, Illinois. He recruited a company for the 11th Illinois regiment early in 1861; was commissioned captain, April 26; major, in May, by a vote of the company officers; lieutenant-colonel, July 30; was wounded while leading a charge at Charleston, Mo., Aug. 20; took part in the capture of Fort Henry and in the assault upon Fort Donelson, where he was again wounded; was appointed colonel to succeed W. H. L. Wallace; promoted brigadier-general, Feb. 15, 1862, and though wounded in the head, he led his regiment at Shiloh. He became chief of staff to Gen. J. A. McClernand, and inspector-general of the Army of the Tennessee in June, 1862. He was appointed brigadier-general in January, 1863, and commanded the 2d brigade, 6th division, 17th corps in the Vicksburg campaign, his services in rebuilding the bridge across the Big Black River and his energy during the entire siege being especially commended by General Grant. He commanded a detachment of the 13th corps in the expedition to the mouth of the Rio Grande, Oct. 26, 1863; captured Fort Esperanza commanding the entrance to Matagorda bay, Dec. 30, and in the Red river campaign was seriously wounded at Sabine Cross Roads (Mansfield). April 8, 1864. He commanded the 4th division, and succeeded Gen. G. M. Dodge to the command of the 16th corps in the operations about Atlanta, Ga., Aug. 19, 1864. General Dodge having been released from the command of the corps, by reason of wounds received that day. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, Sept. 1, 1864; continued in command of the 16th corps until the divisions making it up were merged into the 15th and 17th corps when he with his division went with the 17th corps and in the absence of Gen. Frank P. Blair assumed command about Sept. 27. He led the corps in the pursuit of Hood's army, part of the time in an ambulance, and then on a stretcher until his fatal illness, brought on by the overwork and exposure, forced him to relinquish his command at Gaylesville, Ala., and while being carried on a stretcher to Rome, Ga., he died at a comfortable farm house in which he was resting. He was buried in Rose Hill cemetery, Chicago, Ill., and shortly afterward his mother received from President Lincoln his commission as major-general of volunteers, which had been signed before his death, but was awaiting the action of congress. He was unmarried. He was an active member of the Methodist Episcopal church, and took a leading part in the religious services held in connection with the army. General Howard in General Field orders No. 21, issued from Cedartown, Ga., Nov. 1, 1861, bore testimony to his noble record, pure and elevated character and enthusiasm in his country's cause. He died near Rome, Ga., Oct. 29, 1864.

RAUCH, John Henry, physician, was born in Lebanon, Pa., Sept. 4, 1828; son of Bernhard and Jane (Brown) Rauch, and a descendant of the Rev. Christian Henry Rauch, a Reformed Moravian clergyman, missionary to the Italians, 1741-42; a German Reformed clergyman in Lebanon, Berks, Lancaster, and other counties, 1746, and a teacher and preacher in Lititz and Warwick, Pa., 1749. He prepared for college at Lebanon academy, and was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania, M.D., in 1849. He removed to Burlington, Iowa, in 1850, and as a member of the Iowa State Medical society reported on the medical and economical botany of the state in 1850. He was the first delegate from Iowa to the American Medical association in 1851. He assisted Professor Agassiz in the collection of materials for Natural History of the United States, from valuable collections secured from the Upper Mississippi and Missouri rivers, 1855-56, a description of which appeared in Silliman's Journal of Natural Sciences. He was an active member of the Iowa Historical and Geological institute; professor of materia medica in Rush Medical college, Chicago, Ill., 1857-60; president of the Iowa State Medical society, 1858, and an organizer and professor of materia medica and medical botany in the Chicago College of Pharmacy, 1859-61. He was brigade-surgeon in Hunter's and McDowell's army in Virginia, 1861-62; assistant medical director of the army of Virginia, 1862; of the army in Louisiana, 1862-64; and at Detroit, Mich., and in the Madison general hospital, 1864-65. He was mustered out with the brevet rank of lieutenant-colonel in 1865; settled in Chicago, where he aided in reorganizing the health service of the city in 1867, and was a member of the board of health, and sanitary superintendent, 1867-73. He visited the mining regions of South America in 1870, in the hope of bettering their sanitary condition. He was president of the American Public Health association in 1876; first president of the Illinois state board of health, 1877, and its secretary, 1878-80. His interest in the yellow fever epidemic of 1878-79 resulted in the formation of the sanitary council of the Mississippi Valley, and the establishment of the river-inspection service of the national board of health in 1879, and he also investigated the relation of smallpox to foreign immigration. He was a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; of the American Social Science association, and one of the Agassiz memorial committee. He is the author of: Intramural Interments and their Influence on Health and Epidemics (1866); Practical Recommendations for the Exclusion and Prevention of Asiatic Cholera in North America (1884): monographs on sanitary science and preventive medicine, and Reports of the Illinois state board of health. He died in Chicago, Ill., March 24, 1894.

RAUM, Green Berry, soldier and representative, was born in Golconda, Ill., Dec. 3, 1829; son of John and Juliet C. (Feild) Raum; grandson of Melchoir and Mary (King) Raum, and of Green B. and Mary Elenor (Cogswell) Feild; and great-grandson of Conrad (who emigrated from Alsace to Pennsylvania, landing at Philadelphia in April, 1742) and Catherine (Weiser) Rahm, and of Dr. Joseph (a native of Connecticut, and of English descent) and Frances (Mitchell) Cogswell. He was educated in the common schools and by tutors, and was admitted to the bar in 1853. He practised law in Golconda, 1853-56; in Kansas, where he was a member of the free state party, 1856-57, and in 1857 located in Harrisburg, Ill. He was married, Oct. 16, 1851, to Maria, daughter of Daniel and Elizabeth (Daily) Field of Golconda. He was alternate delegate to the Democratic national convention which met in Charleston, S.C., April 23, 1860, and in Baltimore, Md., June 18, 1860, and which nominated Stephen A. Douglas for President; made the first war speech in southern Illinois, at Metropolis, after the fall of Fort Sumter, April 23, 1861, and entered the Federal volunteer army as major of the 56th Illinois volunteers. He served under Gen. William S. Rosecrans in the Army of the Mississippi, as lieutenant-colonel, commanding the 56th Illinois in the 2d brigade, 3d division, where he led a successful bayonet charge in the battle of Corinth, Oct. 4, 1862. He served under Grant in the Army of the Mississippi as colonel of his regiment and commanded the 2d brigade in the 7th division, 17th corps, in the Vicksburg campaign, May 1-July 4, 1863, and in the Chattanooga campaign, Nov. 23-25, 1863, being severely wounded at Missionary Ridge, Nov. 25, 1863. He took part in the Atlanta campaign and held the line of communication from Dalton to Acwort and from Kingston to Rome, Ga.; discovered and defeated General Wheeler's raid, and re-enforced Resaca at night against General Hood in October, 1864. He was promoted brevet brigadier-general and brigadier-general; was on Sherman's march to the sea, and with the assembling of his army in South Carolina, and ended his military service by commanding a brigade in the veteran corps under General Hancock at Winchester, Va. He resigned his commission, May 6, 1865, and engaged in railroading as first president and builder of the Cairo and Vincennes railroad company in 1866. He was a Republican representative from the thirteenth Illinois district in the 40th congress, 1867-69, and defeated for the 41st congress in 1868; was president of the Illinois Republican convention of 1866, and temporary president of the state convention of 1876, and a delegate to the Republican national convention at Cincinnati, Ohio, the same year. He was president of the Illinois Republican convention in 1880, and a delegate at-large to the Republican national convention, and was one of the "loyal 306" who supported General Grant for the presidential nomination. He served as U.S. commissioner of internal revenue, 1876-83; practised law in Washington, D.C., 1883-89; was U.S. commissioner of pensions, 1889-93, and subsequently engaged in the practice of law in Chicago. He is the author of: The Existing Conflict between Republican Government and Southern Oligarchy (1884); History of Illinois Republicanism (1900); History of the War for the Union, and of official reports on pensions and contributions to current magazines.

RAWLINS, John Aaron, soldier and cabinet officer, was born at East Galena, Ill., Feb. 13, 1831; son of James Dawson Rawlins, a native of Madison county, Ky., who removed to Missouri, and from there to East Galena. He was a descendant of Robert Rawlings, an early settler of Maryland. The family removed to Guildford, Ill., where John Aaron Rawlins attended school and helped on the farm and in burning charcoal. He attended Mount Morris seminary, 1852-53; studied law in Galena, 1854-55; practised in partnership with Isaac P. Stevens, his preceptor, 1855-56, and with David Sheean, 1858-61. He was elected city attorney for Galena in 1857; was a Democratic candidate for presidential elector in 1860, and held a series of joint discussions with Allen C. Fuller, the Lincoln and Hanmlin candidate for elector from his district, which gave him a local reputation as a public speaker. On the firing on Fort Sumter in April, 1861, he aided in arousing the people of Illinois to the dangers that threatened the Union and in recruiting the 45th Illinois volunteers. He was appointed aide-de-camp to General Grant, who had been attracted to him by bearing him speak at Galena in favor of maintaining the Union, and although the youngest member of his staff, was promoted assistant adjutant-general, with the rank of captain, Sept. 15, 1861, at Cairo, his commission dating from Aug. 31, 1861. The only time he was absent from staff duty during the entire war was in August and September, 1864, when on sick leave. He was promoted rapidly, being made major, April 14, 1862; lieutenant-colonel, Nov. 1, 1862; brigadier-general of volunteers, Aug. 11, 1863; brevet major-general of volunteers, Feb. 24, 1865; brigadier-general, U.S.A., and chief of staff, March 3, 1865, and brevet major-general, U.S.A., March 13, 1865. He was married first, June 5, 1856, to Emily, daughter of Hiram Smith of Goshen, N.Y., and secondly, in 1863, to Mary E., daughter of S. A. Hurlburr of Danbury, Conn. General Grant characterized him as "more nearly indispensable to me than any officer in the service." He was appointed secretary of war in President Grant's cabinet, March 9, 1869, and held the office until his death from pulmonary consumption, contracted during the war. A popular subscription was started after his death for the benefit of his family, and $50,000 was raised. His statue in bronze was erected in Washington. He died in Washington, D.C., Sept. 9, 1869.

RAYMOND, Benjamin Wright, pioneer, was born at Rome, N.Y., Oct. 23, 1801. He attended the district school, and a French academy in Canada; served as a clerk in a general store several years, and subsequently engaged in business for himself, first in Rome and then in East Bloomfield, N.Y. He was married, Jan. 12, 1834, to Amelia, daughter of Reuben and Anna (Root) Porter of East Bloomfield, N.Y. He retrieved to Chicago, Ill., in 1836, and was mayor of the city, 1840-46, devoting his entire salary to alleviating the distress of laborers. He inaugurated the system of wide streets, and secured Dearborn Park and the lake front as a gift to Chicago. He was influential in securing to the city the Galena railroad, the first road built in Illinois; erected the first woolen mill in the state, and in 1864 organized the Elgin National watch company and became its first president. He was one of the organizers of the city of Lake Forest, Ill.; a founder of Lake Forest university, and for twenty-five years president of its board of trustees. He was also president of the Chicago board of trade and the Fox River and Wisconsin Central railroad, and a trustee of Beloit college, and of Rockford Female seminary. He died in Chicago, Ill., April 5, 1883.

REEVES, Walter, representative, was born near Brownsville, Pa., Sept. 25, 1848; son of Harrison and Maria (Leonard) Reeves; grandson of Samuel and Martha (Palmer) Reeves, and of Benjamin and Mary Leonard. He removed to Illinois in 1856, and engaged in farming, later becoming a teacher. He was admitted to the bar in 1875, and practised in the courts of Illinois. He was married, June 27, 1876, to Marietta M., daughter of Lucius and Catherine (Warner) Cogswell of New Milford, Conn. He was a Republican representative from the eleventh district of Illinois in the 54th, 55th, 56th and 57th congresses, 1895-1903. As a member of the committee on rivers and harbors he devoted his energies to the internal development of the country. He also proposed and prepared the legislation under which President McKinley appointed the Isthmian Canal commission which investigated the Panama and Nicaraguan routes for the inter-oceanic canal. In the 57th congress he was chairman of the committee on patents.

REID, William Thomas, educator, was born near Jacksonville, Ill., Nov. 8, 1843; son of George Washington and Martha Elizabeth (Williams) Reid, and grandson of Stephen Holland and Mary (Prather) Reid and of William White and Lydia (Williams) Whitehurst Williams of Virginia. From his father's death in 1850 until 1859 he worked on his grandfather's farm. He attended Illinois college, 1859-61, enlisted in the 68th Illinois volunteers as sergeant in April, 1861, and served near Alexandria, Va. He was graduated from Harvard, A.B., 1868, A.M., 1872, and was principal of the high school at Newport, R.I., 1868-71, meanwhile studying law, which he finally abandoned. He was married, Aug. 16, 1870, to Julia, daughter of Maro McLean and Elizabeth (Lathrop) Reed, of Jacksonville, Ill. He was assistant to Dr. Francis Gardner, head master of the Boston Latin school, 1871-73; superintendent of the public schools of Brookline, Mass., 1873-75, and principal of the Boys' high school at San Francisco, Cal., 1875-81. He was elected president of the University of California at Berkeley in 1881, succeeding Dr. John LeConte, and filled the office until 1885, when he resigned, and founded and opened the Belmont School in Belmont, San Mateo county, Cal.

REYNOLDS, John, governor of Illinois, was born in Montgomery county, Pa., Feb. 26, 1788; son of Robert and Margaret (Moore) Reynolds, who emigrated from Ireland to the United States, and settled in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1785. His parents removed to Tennessee during his infancy and from there to Kaskaskia, Ill., in 1800. He labored on his father's farm, attended college in Tennessee, and studied law under John McCampbell in Knoxville, Tenn., 1810-12. He served on the Illinois frontier as a scout in the campaigns against the Indians, 1812-13, and began the practice of law in Cahokia, Ill., in 1814, where he also engaged in surveying and selling lands. He was elected an associate judge of the state supreme court in 1818, subsequently succeeding Chief-Justice Phillips; represented St. Clair county in the Illinois legislature, 1826-29; was Democratic governor of Illinois, 1830-34; commanded the Illinois militia during the Black Hawk war in May and June, 1832; was a Democratic representative from Illinois in the 23d congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Charles Slade, and in the 24th congress, serving from Dec. 1, 1834, to March 3, 1837. He was defeated for the 25th congress in 1836, and was re-elected to the 26th and 27th congresses, 1839-43. He was a member of the state financial committee appointed in 1838 to negotiate loans to carry on public improvements; visited England and the continent of Europe in behalf of the project in 1839; was a representative in the state legislature, 1846-48 and 1852-54, and speaker of the house, 1852-54. He was an anti-Douglas delegate to the Charleston convention in 1860, supported John C. Breckinridge for the presidency, and in 1861 urged upon the Democratic administration the seizure of the treasure and arms in the custom-house and arsenal at St. Louis, Mo. He edited the Daily Eagle, Belleville, Ill., for several years, and is the author of: The Pioneer History of Illinois (1848); John Kelly; A Glance at the Crystal Palace and Sketches of Travel (1854), and My Own Times (1855). He died in Belleville, Ill., May 8, 1865.

REYNOLDS, John Parker, agriculturist, was born in Lebanon, Ohio, March l, 1820; son of John Parker and Laura Patience (Willson) Reynolds; grandson of Gilbert and Experience (Hurd) Willson of Bennington county, Vt., and great-grandson of Joseph Reynolds, a native of Duchess county, N.Y., and a descendant of Jonathan Reynolds of Warren, R.I., who came to America from Devonshire, England, in 1650. He was graduated form Miami university, A.B., 1838, A.M., 1841, and from the Cincinnati Law college, LL.B., 1840, and was admitted to the bar in 1841. He was married, Nov. 3, 1842, to Eliza Ann, daughter of William and Sarah Bebb of Hamilton, Ohio; practised law in Hamilton, 1841-48; conducted a stock and fruit farm in Winnebago country, Ill., and subsequently in Marion county, 1850-60. He was secretary of the Illinois State Agricultural society, Springfield, Ill., 1860-68; its president, 1871, and a member of its board of directors for twenty-seven years; president of the Illinois state sanitary commission, 1862-65; delegate to the Paris Universal exposition of 1867, when he served on the jury of agricultural implements and establishments; president of the Illinois state board of agriculture, Chicago, Ill., 1871-73; secretary and director of the interstate industrial exposition of Chicago, 1873-91; president of the Illinois state commission to the Centennial exposition at Philadelphia, 1876; chief state inspector of grain, 1877-82; and director-in-chief of the Illinois state commission for the World's Columbian exposition, 1891-93. He received the honorary degree of LL.D. from Miami university in 1896, and was a frequent contributor to agricultural and scientific journals.

REYNOLDS, Thomas, governor of Missouri, was born in Bracken county, Ky., March 12, 1796. He was admitted to the bar in 1817; removed to Illinois, where he engaged in the practice of law and was elected clerk of the state house of representatives. He was a representative in and speaker of that body; attorney-general of the state, and chief-justice of the state supreme court. He removed to Fayette, Howard county, Mo., in 1829; represented Howard county in the state legislature, and was elected speaker in 1832. He was a circuit judge for several years, and in 1840 was elected governor of Missouri by the Democratic party serving, 1841-44. He died by his own hand at Jefferson City, Mo., Feb. 9, 1844.

REYNOLDS, William Morton, clergyman, was born in Fayette county, Pa., March 4, 1812; son of Col. George (a Revolutionary soldier) and Mary (Babe) Reynolds. He was graduated at the Theological seminary at Gettysburg, Pa., in 1828, and at Jefferson college, Canonsburg, Pa., in 1832; was principal of the preparatory department of Pennsylvania college, Gettysburg, Pa., 1833-35; financial agent of the college in 1835; was licensed to preach by the Western Pennsylvania Synod of the Lutheran church in 1835, and ordained in 1836. He was pastor of the Lutheran congregation at Deerfield, N.J., 1835-36, and professor of Latin in Pennsylvania college, 1836-50. He was married in June, 1838, to Anna Maria, daughter of John Swan. He was the first prsident of Capitol university, Columbus, Ohio, 1850-53; principal of a female seminary, Easton, Pa., and of a classical academy, Allentown, Pa., 1853-57; president of Illinois State university, 1857-60; principal of a female seminary in Chicago, Ill., 1860-64; was admitted to the diaconate and ordained priest in the Protestant Episcopal church by Bishop Whitehouse of Illinois in 1864, and was rector of various parishes in the diocese of Illinois until his death. He received the degree D.D. from Jefferson college in 1850. He founded and became editor of the Evangelical Magazine in 1840; edited the Linnoean Record and Journal in 1845, and established and edited the Evangelical Review, 1849-62. He was also the cheif editor of the hymn book of the general synod in 1850, and an active member of its liturgical committee for several years. He published American Literature, an address (1845); The Captivi of Plautus, with introduction and notes (1846); Inaugural Address as President of Capitol University (1850); Historical Address before the Historical Society of the Lutheran Church (1848); Inaugural Address as President of Illinois State University (1858); and translated with introduction and notes, History of New Sweden, by Israel Acrelius (1874). He died in Oak Park, Ill., Sept. 5, 1876.

RIDGWAY, Robert, ornithologist, was born in Mount Carmel, Ill., July 2, 1850; son of David and Henrietta James (Reed) Ridgway, and grandson of Richard and Sarah Ridgway and of Joseph and Eliza (Bell) Reed. He was educated in the public schools, and at an early age turned his attention to natural history. He served as zoölogist to the U.S. geological exploration of the 40th parallel under Clarence King in California, Nevada, southern Idaho, and Utah, 1867-69; was occupied chiefly with government work, 1869-80, and was curator of the ornithological division of the U.S. National museum from July 1, 1880. He was married, Oct. 12, 1875, to Julia Evelyn, daughter of Horace and Elizabeth (Nichols) Perkins of New York city. He was one of the founders of the American Ornithologists' union in 1883; its vice-president, 1883-98, and its president, 1899-1900. He received the degree M.S., from the Indiana State university in 1884; was a member of the permanent ornithological committee of the first international congress at Vienna in 1885, and an honorary member of the second congress Ornithologique International at Budapesth in 1891. He became a corresponding member of the Zoölogical society of London, and of the Academies of Science of New York, Davenport, Ia., and Chicago, Ill.; a foreign member of the British Ornithologists' union; an honorary member of the Nuttall Ornithological club of Cambridge, Mass., the Brookville, Ind., Society of Natural History, the Ridgway Ornithological club of Chicago, Ill., and a member of the committee of patronage of the International Congress of Zoölogy at London. He published more than 200 descriptive papers of new species and races of American birds, many of which appeared in the "Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum"; several catalogues of North American and other birds contained in the museum, and is the joint author with Professor Spencer F. Baird and Dr. Thomas M. Brewer of: A History of Northern American Birds (3 vols., 1874), and of The Water Birds of North America (2 vols., 1884), in which he wrote a large portion of the technical parts. He also published: Report on Ornithology of the Fortieth Parallel (1877); A Nomenclature of Colors for Naturalists (1886); Manual of North American Birds (1887); The Ornithology of Illinois (2 vols., 1889-1895), and The Birds of North and Middle America (8 vols., 1901).

RIGGS, John Davis Seaton, educator, was born in Washington, Pa., Jan. 29, 1851; son of Edward and Charlotte Ann (Seaton) Riggs, and grandson of John and Mary (Phillips) Riggs, and of George Clark and Esther (Shotwell) Smith Seaton. His early education was received in the public schools of Rockford, Ill. He was a student at Shurtleff college from April, 1867, until December, 1868; then attended the University of Chicago, one term; engaged in business at Rockford, Ill., 1869-75; was graduated from the University of Chicago, A.B., 1878, A.M., 1881, and was principal of the commercial department of Salt Lake academy, Utah, 1878-79. He was married, Sept. 2, 1879, to Mary Esther, daughter of Osborn and Amanda (Rice) Chaney of Rockford, Ill. He was principal of the preparatory department of the University of Chicago, 1879-86; joint principal of the University academy, Chicago, 1886-87; organized and was principal of the Granville (Doane) academy, Denison university, Ohio, 1887-96, and in the latter year was elected president of Ottawa university, Kansas. He was made a member of the state board of education of Kansas; president of the Kansas College Presidents' association, and a corresponding member of the Kansas State Historical society. The degree of Ph.D. was conferred on him by the University of South Dakota in 1890, upon the completion of a course in general literature and the presentation of a thesis on "Satire in Reform", and the honorary degree of L.H.D. was conferred upon him by Ewing college, Illinois, in 1901. He is the author of: Ia Latinum (Cæesar) (1890), and In Latinum (Cicero) (1892).

RILEY, Charles Valentine, entomologist, was born in London, Eng., Sept. 18, 1843. He attended the College of St. Paul, Dieppe, France, 1854-57, and a private school at Bonn, Prussia, 1857-60. He emigrated to America in 1860, and settled in Kankakee county, Ill., where he obtained employment on a stock farm. In 1863 he removed to Chicago, Ill., and became a reporter on the Evening Journal, and later on the Prairie Farmer. He was editor of the entomological department of the latter paper, and became well known among the agriculturists of the west. He enlisted with the 134th Illinois volunteers in May, 1864, and served until November, 1864, when he resumed his work with the Prairie Farmer. He was appointed first state entomologist of Missouri in 1868. He was chief of the United States entomological commission to study and solve the problem of the extinction of the Rocky Mountain grasshopper. After five years, having completed the work, the commission was discontinued. He was U.S. entomologist, 1878-79 and 1880-95, and brought the division of entomology from an obscure position to one of prominence in the department of agriculture. He was married in 1878, to Emilie J. Gonzelman of St. Louis, Mo. He was an honorary member of the London Entomological society; corresponding member of the French, Berlin, Swiss and Belgian entomological societies; president of the Academy of Sciences of St. Louis, 1876-78; a fellow of the American Philosophical society, the American Pomological society, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science; a member of the American Agricultural society; the Association of Scientific Agriculturists, and the Philosophical and Anthropological societies of Washington; a founder and first president of the Entomological society, Washington; president of the Association of Economic Entomologists, and a member or officer of many other foreign and domestic horticultural and agricultural bodies. The French government awarded Illin a gold medal in 1873, and the cross of the Legion of Honor, July 14, 1889. He lectured before Cornell university; the Kansas State Agricultural society; the Missouri State university; Washington university, St. Louis, and the Lowell Institute, Boston. He received the honorary degrees A.M. from the Kansas State Agricultural college, 1872, and Ph.D. from Missouri State university, 1873. He presented his collection of 115,000 mounted specimens to the entomological department of the U.S. National Museum, of which institution he was honorary curator of insects. He is the author of: Reports on the Noxious, Beneficial and Other Insects of the State of Missouri (9 annual volumes, 1869-77); Potato Pests (1876); The Locust Plague in the United States (1877); and Annual Reports as entomologist of the department of agriculture, besides many articles, lectures and addresses in the leading entomological and agricultural magazines. He died in Washington, D.C., Sept. 14, 1895.

ROACH, John, ship builder, was born in Mitchellstown, county Cork, Ireland, Dec. 25, 1813; son of a small dealer in cloths, who failed in business through endorsing notes for his friends, in 1827. John landed in New York city penniless in 1827, and finally obtained work from James P. Allarie in the Howell Iron works in New Jersey, where he remained for three years. He removed to Illinois, where with $500 of his savings he purchased some land which became the site of the city of Peoria, but owing to the failure of Mr. Allaire he lost the $1000 still due him, and also lost possession of his land. He returned to New York, worked on marine engines and shipwork till he had saved $1000, when with three fellow-workmen he established an independent foundry in New York city, shortly afterward becoming sole owner, and in four years he had accumulated $30,000. He was married in New Jersey in 1837 to Emeline Johnson. In 1856 an explosion of a boiler destroyed his works, and failing to recover insurance he was ruined. He borrowed a small sum of money and rebuilt the Ætna Iron Works, added to it by purchasing the Morgan Iron Works in 1868, for which he paid $400,000, the Neptune Works in 1868, the Franklin Forge and the Allaire Works in 1870, and the ship yards at Chester, Pa., owned by Rainer and Sons, in 1871. He constructed the largest engines built in the United States, up to the time of his death, also the first compound engines, and after 1871 devoted himself almost exclusively to shipbuilding, his plant at Chester, Pa., valued at $2,000,000, being known as the Delaware River Iron Ship-building and Engine Works, of which he was the principal owner. He built sixty-three iron vessels in twelve years, either for the U.S. government or for private transportation companies. His government contracts included six monitors ordered during President Grant's administration. The last vessels that he built for the U.S. navy were the three cruisers Chicago, Atlanta and Boston, and the despatch boat Dolphin. The government refused to accept the Dolphin in 1885, which act, together with the financial crisis, forced him to make an assignment for the protection of his creditors and bonds-men, July 18, 1885. He constructed about 114 iron vessels for private concerns and foreign governments, and also built the sectional dock at Pensacola, Fla., and the iron bridge over the Harlem river at Third Avenue, New York city. His son, John Baker Roach, succeeded to the management of the Chester works, which were reopened when the government accepted the Dolphin. John Roach died in New York city, Jan. 10, 1887.

ROBINSON, Benjamin Lincoln, botanist, was born in Bloomington, Ill., Nov. 8, 1864; son of James Harvey and Latricia Maria (Drake) Robinson; grandson of Benjamin and Ruhama (Wood) Robinson and of the Rev. Benjamin Bradner and Melinda (Parsons) Drake, and a descendant in the eighth generation through Isaac Robinson, Plymouth, 1630, of Rev. John Robinson of Leyden, the leader of the Puritans. He attended the Illinois State Normal school, and was graduated from Harvard in 1887. He was married, June 29, 1887, to Margaret Louise, daughter of William Henry and Mary Ann (McMahon) Casson of Hennepin, Ill. He studied at Strassburg and Bonn universities, receiving the degree of Ph.D. from Strassburg in 1889. He was appointed curator of the Gray Herbarium in 1892, and Asa Gray professor of systematic botany at Harvard university in 1900. He was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; a follow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; a non-resident member of Washington Academy of Sciences; a member of the Botanical Society of America, and served as its president in 1900. He edited the later parts of the Synoptical Flora of North America (1895-97), and Rhodora, the journal of the New England Botanical club, and wrote many papers on the classification of the higher plants of North America and Mexico.

ROBINSON, James C., representative, was born in Edgar county, Ill., in 1822. He received a very limited education; served as a private in the Mexican war, 1846-47; studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1850. He was a Democratic representative from Illinois in the 36th-38th and 42d-43d congresses, 1859-65 and 1871-75. He removed from Marshall to Springfield, Ill., where he died, Nov. 3, 1886.

ROBINSON, John McCraken, senator, was born in Scott county, Ky., April 10, 1794; son of Jonathan and Jane (Black) Robinson; grandson of George and Ann (Wiley) Robinson; great-grandson of Philip Robinson, and a descendant of Thomas Robinson, who came to America prior to 1730, and was among the earliest Scotch-Irish settlers in Pennsylvania. About 1818 he removed to Carmi, Ill., where he was admitted to the bar and began practice. He was married, Jan. 28, 1829, to Mary Brown Davidson, daughter of James and Margaret (Hargraves) Ratcliffe of Carmi, Ill. In 1832 he was elected U.S. senator to fill the unexpired term of John McLean, deceased, and for a full term, serving from Jan. 4, 1832, to March 3, 1843. On March 6, 1843, he became judge of the supreme court of Illinois, serving until his death, which occurred in Ottawa, Ill., April 27, 1843.

ROSS, Leonard Fulton, soldier, was born in Lewistown, Ill., July 18, 1823; son of Ossian M. and Mary (Winans) Ross; brother of Lewis Winans Ross (q.v.). He attended Illinois college, 1841-42, was admitted to the bar in 1844, and Nov. 13, 1845, was married to Catherine M., daughter of Reuben C. and Frances (Graves) Simms of Virginia. On July 18, 1846, he enlisted as a private in the 4th Illinois volunteers, for service in the war with Mexico, was commissioned first lieutenant, September, 1846, and commanded his company at Vera Cruz and Cerro Gordo. He was probate justice of Fulton county, Ill., in 1847, clerk of Fulton county in 1849, and in 1861 recruited a company for the civil war. He was commissioned colonel of the 17th Illinois volunteers, was engaged at Fredericktown, Mo., under General Frémont in October, 1861, and at Belmont, Mo., under General McClernand, Nov. 7, 1861. He was attached to the 3d brigade, 1st division, Grant's army, and fought at Fort Henry, Feb. 6, 1862, and at Fort Donelson, Feb. 15, 1862, where he succeeded Colonel Morrison in the command of the brigade. He was placed in command of Fort Girardeau, Mo., and April 25, 1862, was promoted brigadier-general. He was stationed in southwestern Tennessee, later took part in the operations about Vicksburg and was mustered out in 1865. He was appointed collector of internal revenue in 1867, in 1868 was unsuccessful Republican candidate for representative in the 41st congress, removed to Iowa City, In., and engaged in raising cattle, but in 1894 returned to Lewiston, Ill. He was a delegate to the Democratic national conventions of 1852 and 1856, and the Republican national convention of 1872. He died in Lewistown, Ill., Jan. 17, 1901.

ROSS, Lewis Winans, representative, was born in Seneca Falls, N.Y., Dec. 8, 1812; son of Ossian M. and Mary (Winans) Ross; grandson of Joseph and Abagail Ross, and a descendant of Zebulon Ross, who came from Scotland early in the eighteenth century. He removed to Illinois with his parents, attended Illinois college, 1837, sod became a lawyer. He was married, June 13, 1839, to Frances M., daughter of Reuben C. and Frances (Graves) Simms of Virginia. He was a representative in the state legislature, 1840, 1841, 1844 and 1845; member of the state constitutional conventions, 1861 and 1870; and a Democratic representative from Illinois in the 38th, 39th and 40th congresses, 1863-69. He died in Lewistown, Ill., Oct. 29, 1895.

ROUTT, John Long, governor of Colorado, was born in Eddyville, Caldwell county, Ky., April 25, 1826; son of John Routt, and grandson of Daniel Routt, a veteran of the war of 1812. His father died when he was very young, and in 1836 he removed with his mother to Bloomington, Ill., where he attended the district schools, and in 1860 became sheriff of McLean county. In 1862 he was commissioned captain, 94th Illinois volunteers, fighting under Grant in the west, and performing dangerous special service at Vicksburg; and was mustered out in 1865. He was treasurer of McLean county, 1865-69, was U.S. marshal for the southern district of Illinois, 1865-69, and was second assistant postmaster-general, 1871-75. He was married, first, in 1845, to Hester Woodson, who died in 1872; and secondly, in 1875, to Eliza Franklin Pickerel. He was appointed governor of Colorado Territory in February, 1875, which position he held until Colorado was admitted to statehood in 1876, when he was chosen first governor of the state. He declined renomination and devoted his attention to business until, in 1883, he was elected mayor of Denver, and he was again governor of Colorado, 1890-92.

RYAN, James, R.C. bishop, was born in Thurles, county Tipperary, Ireland, June 17, 1848. He came to the United States at an early age; prepared for the priesthood in the seminaries of St. Thomas and St. Joseph, Bardstown, Ky.; was ordained, Dec. 24, 1871, at Louisville, Ky.; was professor at St. Joseph's seminary, and subsequently missionary pastor in Kentucky until 1878, and in Illinois, 1878-88. He was appointed bishop of Alton, Ill., and was consecrated May 1, 1888, by Bishop Spalding of Peoria, assisted by Bishops McCloskey and Janssen.

SABIN, Dwight May, senator, was born on a farm near Marseilles, La Salle county, Ill., April 25, 1843; the youngest son of Horace C. and Maria E. Sabin; grandson of Jedediah Sabin, of Huguenot and Scotch descent, who shared in the original Roxbury grant, owning a large farm in Windham country, Conn., which had descended to him from the earliest pioneers. His father, who had settled in Illinois, returned to Windham, Conn., in 1857. Dwight M. Sabin attended Phillips academy, Andover, Mass.; served in the Federal army for three months in 1863, and then engaged in farming and lumbering in Connecticut until 1868, when he settled in Stillwater, Minn., in the lumber business and as a manufacturer of railroad cars and agricultural machinery. He represented the twenty-second district in the Minnesota senate, 1872-73, and in the lower house, 1878 and 1881, and was a delegate to the Republican national conventions of 1872, 1876, 1880 and 1884, serving as chairman in 1884. He was a U.S. senator from Minnesota, 1883-89, serving as chairman of the committee on railroads. He was married, July 1, 1891, to Jessie Larmon, daughter of Asahel and Susan Slee of Paducah, Ky. He died suddenly of heart failure at the Auditorium Annex, Chicago, Dec. 22, 1902.

ST. JOHN, John Pierce, governor of Kansas, was born in Brookville, Ind., Feb. 25, 1833; son of Samuel and Sophia (Snell) St. John; grandson of Daniel and Mercy (Gardner) St. John. The St. Johns are of Huguenot descent. He worked on his father's farm and in a country store; attended the district school, and removed to California in 1853, where he shipped for a voyage to South America, Mexico, Central America and the Sandwich Islands. He also served in the Indian wars in California and Oregon, engaged in mining, and removed to Charleston, Ill., in 1859. He was married, March 28, 1860, to Susan J. Parker, daughter of Col. Nathaniel Parker of Charleston, Ill. He was admitted to the Illinois bar in 1861, practised in Charleston, and in 1862 was arrested and tried under the Illinois "Black Laws," on the criminal charge of harboring a colored person, and was acquitted. He aided in organizing the 68th Illinois volunteers in 1862, in which he served as captain; was detached and assigned as acting assistant adjutant-general, under Gen. John P. Slough; commanded the troops at Camp Mattoon, Ill., in 1864; was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the 143d Illinois infantry, and served in the Mississippi valley until the close of the war. He practised law in Independence, Mo., 1865-69, and in Olathe, Kan., from 1869; was a member of the Kansas senate, 1873-74; was Republican governor of the state for two terms, 1879-83, and was nominated for President of the United States on the Prohibition ticket in 1884, from which year he advocated prohibition, woman suffrage, and the free coinage of both gold and silver. He also opposed the war in the Philippines, 1898-1901, and lectured extensively on these subjects.

SARGENT, Herbert Howland, soldier, was born in Carlinville, Ill., Sept. 29, 1858; son of Jacob True and Maria Lucretia (Braley) Sargent; grandson of Daniel and Deborah (Foss) Sargent and of Elliott and Lucretia (Bullard) Braley, and the ninth in descent from William Sargent (born in England about 1606; died at Amesbury, Mass., March, 1675). He was graduated from Blackburn university, B.S., 1878, and from the U.S. [p.234] Military academy, 1883, being promoted 2d lieutenant, 2d U.S. cavalry, June 13, 1883, and served on frontier duty until 1898, except one year, 1886-87, when he was professor of military science at the University of Illinois. He was married, Aug. 11, 1886, to Alice Carey, daughter of Lindsay and Elizabeth (Miller) Applegate of Ashland, Ore. He served at Washington, D.C., May, 1898, in organizing volunteers for the Spanish-American war; was appointed colonel, Fifth Volunteer infantry, May 20, 1898; organized the regiment and arrived at Santiago, Cuba, Aug. 12, and commanded the regiment there under Gen. Leonard Wood until March 20, when he was ordered with his regiment to command the district of Guantanamo. He sailed from Guantanamo to the United States the following May, and was mustered out of service at Camp Meade, Pa., May 31, 1899. He was appointed lieutenant-colonel, 29th infantry, U.S. volunteers, July 5, 1899; sailed with his regiment for Manila, Philippine Islands, Oct. 5, 1899, arriving Nov. 2; participated in combats with insurgents on the island of Luzon; commanded the attacking forces at the battle of San Mateo, in which General Lawton was killed, Dec. 19, 1899; was honorably discharged from the volunteer service, May 10, 1901, and promoted captain, 2d U.S. cavalry, March 2, 1899. He is the author of: Napoleon Bonaparte's First Campaign (1893), and The Campaign of Marengo (1897). His works on Napoleon's campaigns gave him high standing as an authority on military strategy.

SCAMMON, Jonathan Young, educationist, was born in Whitefield, Me., July 27, 1812, son of Eliakim Scammon, and grandson of David Young, he was educated at Waterville college, Maine, studied law in Hallowell, and practised in Chicago, Ill., 1855-57. He was assistant clerk of Cook county, 1835-36, prepared a new edition of Gale's Statutes, published "Scammon's Reports" (4 vols., 1832-43); became attorney of the State Bank of Illinois in 1837, and was reporter of the supreme court of the state, 1839-45. He was a founder and director of the Galena and Chicago railroad, originated the public school system of Chicago, serving as inspector of schools and as president of the board of education; was a founder of the Chicago Academy of Sciences; and also of the Chicago Astronomical society, of which he was the first president. He built Dearborn observatory at his own expense, and conducted it for several years, purchasing for it the first grand refractor telescope manufactured by Abram Clark & Sons. He was a director and president of various banks and insurance companies in Chicago; was a founder in 1844 of the Chicago American, established in support of Henry Clay for the presidency; and in 1872 he established the Inter Ocean, which he edited for several years. He also built the first Swedenborgian church in Chicago, established the Society of the New Jerusalem and the Illinois society of the Swedenborgian church, and was vice-president of the general convention of the Swedenborgian church in the United States, for ten years. He introduced homeopathy into Chicago; founded Hahnemann hospital, and served as a trustee of that institution, and of Hahnemann Medical college. He was also a trustee of the University of Chicago, and vice-president of its board of trustees; and was a delegate to the Republican national conventions of 1864 and 1872. He traveled in Europe, 1857-60, and in the great fire of 1871 lost a large amount of property. The honorary degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him by the University of Chicago in 1862, and by Waterville college (Colby) in 1869. He died in Chicago, Ill., March 17, 1890.

SCHNEIDER, Albert, botanist and author, was born in Granville, Putnam county, Ill., April 13, 1862; son of John and Elizabeth (Burcky) Schneider; grandson of Johannes and Elisabeth (Strack) Schneider and of Jacob and Madeline (Krehbiel) Burcky, and a descendant of Dr. John Burcky, who first arrived in New Orleans, and later, 1804, settled in Cincinnati, Ohio. He attended the district schools and the Northern Illinois Normal school; was graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Chicago, Ill., M.D., 1887, and from the University of Illinois, B.S., 1894. He was married, June 28, 1892, to Marie, daughter of Mitchell and Mary (Driscoll) Harrington of Avoca, Minn.; was instructor in botany in the University of Minnesota, 1893; a fellow in botany at Columbia university, 1894-96, and in 1897 was made professor of botany, pharmacognosy, materia medica and bacteriology in the Northwestern University School of Pharmacy, Chicago, Ill. He received the graduate degree of M.S. from the University of Minnesota, 1894, and that of Ph.D. from Columbia, 1897, and was elected a member of the Deutsche Botanische Gesellschaft; Société Botanique Internationale; the Society of American Authors, and other organizations. Dr. Schneider is the author of: Primary Microscopy and Biology (1890); A Text-Book of General Lichenology (1897); Guide to the Study of Lichens (1898); Hints on Drawing for Students of Biology (1899); General Vegetable Pharmacography (1900); The Limitations of Learning, and Other Science Papers (1900); Powdered Vegetable Drugs (1902); Useful Plants (1903); and numerous contributions to scientific and other journals. He also translated Westermaier's "Compendium der Allgemeinen Botanik" (1896).

SCOTT, John M., jurist, was born in St. Clair, Ill., Aug. 1, 1824; son of Samuel and Nancy (Biggs) Scott. He attended the common schools; was instructed by private tutors, and studied law in the office of William C. Kinney, Belleville, Ill., being admitted to the bar in 1847. He commenced practice in Bloomington, Ill., in 1848; was judge of the McLean county court, 1852-62; judge of the circuit court, 1862-70, and of the supreme court, 1879-88, serving as chief-justice by allotment in 1875, 1883 and 1886. After his retirement from the bench in 1886 Judge Scott devoted himself to literary work. He bequeathed to the city of Bloomington, Illinois, the principal of his estate, estimated at $2,000,000, on the death of heirs, for a public hospital. He is the author of biographical sketches of Browne, Foster, Phillips and Reynolds, the four first judges of the Illinois supreme court, and Rewritten Chapters of Illinois History Prior to 1819. His opinions are contained in the "Illinois Reports" (3rd-126th vols.). He died in Bloomington, Ill., Jan. 21, 1898.

SEMPLE, James, senator, was born in Green county, Ky., Jan. 5, 1798. He was graduated at the law school in Louisville, Ky., and began practice in Clinton county, removing to Edwardsville, Ill., in 1827, where he continued to practise. He was a representative in the Illinois legislature, 1828-33; was speaker four years; brigadier-general of militia during the Black Hawk war, and was attorney-general of Illinois, 1833. He was chargé d'affaires at New Granada with headquarters at Bogata, Oct. 14, 1837 to April 1, 1842; was a judge of the supreme court of Illinois in 1842-43; was appointed by Gov. Thomas Ford to the U.S. senate to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Senator Samuel McRoberts, March 27, 1843, and served to the end of McRoberts's term, March 3, 1847, declining further public office. In the senate he favored the extreme boundary line for Oregon. He invented a steam carriage, and also wrote a history of Mexico, which was never published. He died at Elsah Landing, Ill.. Dec., 20, 1866.

SHARP, Katherine Lucinda, librarian, was born in Elgin, Ill., May 21, 1805; daughter of John William and Phebe (Thompson) Sharp; granddaughter of John J. and Olive (Hyde) Sharp and of Thomas and -- (Hoit) Thompson. She graduated at Northwestern university, Evanston, Ill., A.B., 1885, Ph.M., 1889, and at the New York State Library school, B.L.S., 1892. She was a teacher at Elgin academy, Ill., 1886-88; assistant librarian, Scoville institute, Oak Park, Ill., 1888-90; organizer of the public library at Wheaton, Ill., 1891, and at Xenia, Ohio, 1892; in charge of the comparative library exhibit at the World's Columbian exposition, Chicago, Ill., 1893; director of the department of library science, Armour Institute of Technology, Chicago, 1893-97; director of the summer schooler library science at the University of Wisconsin. 1895-90; lecturer on library economy, University of Chicago, 1890; became director of the Bureau of Information, State Library association, Ill., in 1896; a member of the council of the American Library association in 1895, and was its vice-president, 1895-96, and head librarian and director of the state library school of the University of Illinois from 1897.

SHIELDS, James, soldier, was born in Dungannon, county Tyrone, Ireland, in 1810. He immigrated to the United States in 1826, and began the practice of law in Kaskaskia, Ill., in 1832. He was a representative in the state legislature, in 1836; state auditor, in 1839; judge of the supreme court of Illinois, 1843-45, and was commissioner of the general land office, 1845-46. He was appointed brigadier-general in the U.S. volunteer army, July 1, 1846, and commanded Illinois volunteers under Generals Taylor, Wool, and Scott. He was brevetted major-general for services at Cerro Gordo, where he was severely wounded; commanded a brigade in the operations against the City of Mexico, and was again wounded at Chapultepec. He was mustered out of the volunteer service, July 20, 1848; was territorial governor of Oregon, 1848-49, and U.S. senator from Illinois, 1849-55. He removed to Minnesota Territory, in 1855, and upon the adoption of the state constitution, Oct. 13, 1857, he was elected with Henry M. Rice as U.S. senator, drawing the short term and serving from May 12, 1858 to March 3, 1859. He removed to California, and engaged in mining until 1861, when he was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, Aug. 19, 1261. Upon the death of Frederick W. Lander (q.v.), March 2, 1862, General Shields was appointed to the command of his division, having been ordered to the valley from Washington, and he took command, March 7, 1862. He served under Banks and Frémont, in the Shenandoah valley; engaged Ashby's cavalry in front of Winchester, March 22, 1862; commanded the Federal forces at Kernstown, at the opening of the battle, March 23, 1862, where he was severely wounded, and the command devolved on Gen. Nathan Kimball. On recovering from his wounds, he resumed command of his division and was defeated by Gen. Thomas J. Jackson, at Port Republic, June 9, 1862; withdrew to Front Royal, where he arrived on the 16th and then reported to General McClellan at Harrison's Landing, July 2, 1862, just as the Army of the Potomac had been ordered to evacuate the Peninsula and join Pope's army at Manassas. He resigned his commission, March 28, 1863, and returned to California. He removed to Carrollton, Mo.; practised law and was a representative in the state legislature in 1874 and 1879. He died in Ottumwa, Iowa, June 1, 1879.

SMITH, John Eugene, soldier, was born at Berne, Switzerland, Aug. 3, 1816; son of John Banler Smith, one of Napoleon's officers. His father immigrated to America shortly after the birth of the son, who, after attending school in Philadelphia, Pa., learned the jeweler's trade. He engaged in business in St. Louis, where he was married in 1837, and where his son, Col. A.T. Smith, U.S.A., was born. Later he moved to Galena, Ill., and in 1861 was appointed on Governor Yates's staff, recruiting troops from April to July. He was commissioned colonel, 43th Illinois volunteers, and was engaged at Forts Henry and Donelson, serving in the 2d brigade (W. H. L. Wallace), 1st division (J. A. McClernand); and at Shiloh, April 6 and 7, and the siege of Corinth, May 1 and 30, 1862. He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, Nov. 29, 1862, and participated in the Vicksburg campaign, commanding the 1st brigade, 3d division, 17th corps. In the action at Port Gibson, May 1, General Smith supported Peter J. Osterhaus (q.v.) when he had been repulsed. He was engaged at Raynor, May 12, at Jackson, May 14, at Champion Hill, May. 16, and in the siege of Vicksburg, May 19-July 4, 1863. In the battle of Chattanooga, Nov. 23-25, 1863, General Smith commanded the 2d division, 17th army corps, the only division of that corps in Sherman's army. Smith's division was the second to cross the Tennessee river, formed in column to the rear and right of Morgan L. Smith's division and took possession of the heights that lay in a line with Missionary Ridge. At sunrise the following day, Smith led two brigades up the west side of the ridge to support Gen. John M. Corse. In doing this he was obliged to march over open ground in the face of a heavy fire, but succeeded in reaching the parapet, where he lay until the enemy threatened his right flank. He retreated to a wood, formed a new line of battle, and drove the enemy into his works, and after Sheridan and Wood had made their charge, General Smith succeeded in capturing the Confederate works. He was given command of the 3d division, 15th corps, under General Logan, and was stationed at Cartersville, Ga., for a short time, but joined Sherman before Atlanta, and took part in the march to the sea and through the Carolinas. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, Jan. 12, 1865, for faithful and efficient services, and for gallantry in action, and was honorably mustered out of the volunteer service, April 30, 1866. He was commissioned colonel, U.S.A., July 28, 1866, and was brevetted brigadier-general and major-general, U.S.A., March 2, 1867, for gallant and meritorious services in the siege of Vicksburg and in the action at Savannah, Ga. He was retired because of age, May 19, 1881, and died in Chicago, Ill., Jan. 29, 1897.

SPARKS, William Andrew Jackson, representative, was born near New Albany, Ind., Nov. 19, 1828; son of Baxter and Elizabeth (Gwin) Sparks. His ancestors on both sides were of the early settlers of Virginia from England, and on the paternal side are believed to have been of the colony that founded Jamestown. He removed with his parents to Illinois in 1836, and being soon after left an orphan, worked on a farm and at intervals attended the country schools. Subsequently He taught school and was graduated from McKendree college, Lebanon. Ill., B.S., 1850; studied law with chief-Justice Sidney Breese (q.v.)., and was admmitted to the bar in 1851. He was married, April 16, 1855, at Edwardsville, Ill., to Julia E. Parker. He was receiver of public moneys for the Edwardsville (Ill.) land-office by appointment of President Pierce, 1853-56; was elected for Illinois, in 1856, Democratic presidential elector; was a member of the house of representatives, in the Illinois legislature in 1857-58, and a state senator, 1863-64; a delegate to the Democratic national conventions of 1868, 1884 and 1896, and a Democratic representative from the sixteenth Illinois district in the 44th-47th congresses, 1875-83. He was appointed by President Cleveland in March, 1895, commissioner of the general land office, serving for nearly three years, when he resigned. He subsequently retired from active business. In 1903 he was a resident of St. Louis, Mo.

STUART, David, soldier, was horn in Brooklyn, N.Y., March 12, 1816; son of Robert Stuart (q.v.). He removed to Detroit, Mich., where he practised law, and was a Democratic representative in the 33d congress, 1853-55. He removed to Chicago, Ill., and on Oct. 31, 1861, was commissioned colonel, 55th Illinois volunteers. He was given command of the 2d brigade, Sherman's division, Grant's army, in February, 1862, and at Shiloh he was stationed on the extreme left, and was severely wounded in the shoulder. He was nominated brigadier-general, Nov; 29, 1862, and commanded the 4th brigade, Morgan L. Smith's division, succeeding to the command when General Smith was wounded at Chickasaw Bayou. After McClernand reached the field, Sherman's (13th) corps was formed into the 13th and 15th corps, and Morgan L. Smith taking the new 13th corps, Stuart was given command of 2d division, 15th corps under Sherman, and took an important part in the capture of Arkansas Post, Jan. 11, 1863, but resigned April 3, 1863, because his nomination for brigadier-general failed of confirmation. He died in Detroit, Mich., Sept. 19, 1868.

SWETT, Leonard, lawyer, was born in Turner, Maine, Aug. 11, 1825; son of John and Remember (Berry) Swett; grandson of John and Elizabeth (Warren) Swett of Buckfield, Maine, and a great-grandson of Dr. Stephen Swett, the first physician to settle in Gorham, Maine, in 1770, who served in Col. Edmund Phinney's 31st regiment, 1775, and died at the age of seventy-five years. Leonard Swett worked on his father's farm, attending school in winter until 1837, when he began the study of Latin and Greek. In 1840, he entered North Yarmouth academy, matriculating at Waterville college in 1842, and after a three-years' course, studied law in the office of Howard & Shepley, Portland, 1845-46. He traveled through the South as far as New Orleans and then northward to Indiana, where, discouraged by ill success, he volunteered in the 5th Indiana regiment bound for Mexico to take part in the war. He served under Scott from Vera Cruz to the city of Mexico, and was desperately ill with fever and sent with 125 other convalescent soldiers to New Orleans on the brig Robert Morris, over forty of the number dying on the passage of thirteen days. He finally reached Bloomington, Ill., where he taught school and read law. He was admitted to the bar in 1849, and began practice at Clinton near Bloomington. He rode the 8th judicial circuit with Abraham Lincoln, first meeting him at Mr. Pulaski in 1849, David Davis being the presiding judge at the time. For five years, 1855-60, Lincoln and Swett were the only ones to pass habitually over the circuit, and the two men were companions at all times. Mr. Swett was a Whig elector in 1852, and canvassed the third congressional district of Illinois, and on the repeal of the Missouri compromise, he assisted in forming the Republican party in 1856, being a delegate to its first convention in Bloomington, May 29, 1856. He spoke for the new party in the presidential canvass of 1856, and in 1858 he represented McLean county in the state legislature, accepting offices in order to advance the interests of Mr. Lincoln in his notable contest for the U.S. senatorship against Stephen A. Douglas. In 1859 he worked quietly for Mr. Lincoln's nomination as a Presidential candidate before the coming Republican national convention of 1860. He was a candidate for governor of Illinois in the preliminary canvass, preceding the state convention of 1860, and was defeated by Richard Yates. In 1861 he was offered the command of one of the first regiments recruited in Illinois, but his health, shattered by his experience in the war with Mexico, induced him to decline the honor, and his service in putting down the rebellion was noticeable in his unofficial position as a close personal and political adviser of the President, which required his presence in Washington most of the time during the years 1861-65. This close relationship has been attested by Mr. Lincoln's private and official family and by his most reliable biographers. In 1865 he removed So Chicago, where he practised law until his death. He was a delegate to the Republican national convention of 1888, where as spokesman of the Illinois delegation, he presented the name of Walter Q. Gresham as a Presidential candidate. He was the acknowledged leader at the Chicago bar and his practice, which extended to both civil and criminal cases, included many historical suits, in which he displayed remarkable legal skill and oratorical ability. Judge Grosscup referred to him as "the typical lawyer of the Northwest," to rank with Luther Martin, Jeremiah Mason, Rufus Choate, William Wirt and Charles O'Conor. He was orator of the day at the triennial conclave of Knights Templars at Chicago, in 1879; at the welcome of Gen. Grant, by the army of the Tennessee in Chicago, after returning from his tour around the world; at the dedication of St. Gaudens's statue of Abraham Lincoln at Chicago; and before the Illinois State Bar Association at Springfield, in 1887, on the "Life and Character of David Davis." He died in Chicago, Ill, June 8, 1889.

TAFT, Lorado, sculptor, was born in Elmwood, Ill., April 29, 1860; son of Professor Don Carlos and Mary Lucy (Foster) Taft; grandson of Zadock Lovell and Anna (Ramsdell) Taft and of Dr. Orrin and Cynthia (Haskins) Foster, and a descendant of Robert Taft of Mendon, Mass.; who was born in England or Scotland in 1640, came to this country in 1675, and died in 1725. He was graduated from the Illinois State university, 1879; continued art studies at the cole des Beaux Arts, Paris, 1880-83, receiving honorable mention and subsequently first prize of the atelier; studied under Mercié and others. 1883-85; was an instructor in sculpture at the Chicago Art institute from 1886, and lecturer on art in the extension department of the University of Chicago from 1893. He was married, first, Oct. 4, 1890, to Carrie Louise, daughter of the Rev. William and Caroline (Chamberlain) Scales, who died in April, 1892; and secondly, Feb. 11, 1896, to Ada, daughter of the Rev. Leavitt and Emily (Scales) Bartlett of Boston, Mass. Mr. Taft was influential in promoting the Central Art association in 1894; a member of the National Sculpture society, and of the Society of Western Artists. His figure work includes the decorations of the Horticultural building at the Chicago Columbian exposition, 1893, and those of the Winchester, Ind., soldiers' monument; four figures on the Yonkers, N.Y., memorial; bronze group, The Defence of the Flag, Jackson, Mich.; statues of Schuyler Colfax and of Gen. U. S. Grant, and The Solitude of the Soul, which group received a silver medal at the Pan-American exposition in 1901. He is the author of: History of American Sculpture (1903)).

TANNER, Edward Allen, educator, was born in Waverly, Ill., Nov. 29, 1837; son of Joseph Allan and Orva (Swift) Tanner, who removed from Warren county, Conn., to Waverly, Ill., about 1832; grandson of Ephraim and Huldah (Munson) Tanner and of Elisha and Betsey (Sackett) Swift, and a descendant of Thomas Tanner, born in Rhode Island about 1705-10. He was left an orphan in 1843; worked on a farm until 1850, when he removed to Jacksonville, living at the home of his cousin and guardian, Julian M. Sturtevant. He was graduated from Illinois college, A.B., 1857; taught school in "Mud Prairie," near Franklin, 1857; was instructor and subsequently principal of Waverly academy, 1858-59; taught in Jacksonville, 1860, and was professor of Latin in Oregon university, Forest Grove, 1861-65. He was married, June 27, 1861, to Marion Lucy, daughter of Dr. Isaac Hayden and Mary (Woodford) Brown of Waverly, and they had two sons and three daughters. He was professor of Latin language and literature in Illinois college, 1865-85; financial agent of the college, 1881-82, and president, 1882-92. He acquired a reputation as a pulpit orator and at one time served as chaplain of the Central Hospital for the Insane at Jacksonville. He received the honorary degree of D.D. from Illinois college. He died in Jacksonville, Ill., Feb. 8, 1892.

TAYLOR, Frederick William, second bishop of Quincy and 200th in succession in the American episcopate, was born in Toledo, Ohio, Jan. 11, 1853; son of Dr. Alfred and Helen (Leonard) Taylor; grandson of Elisha and Anne (Dunlap) Taylor and of Henry and Sarah (Morrison) Leonard, and a descendant of Judge John Taylor of Charlton, Saratoga county, N.Y., and of Maj. Henry Leonard of Monmouth county, N.J., and Napoleon, Ohio, who served in the war of 1812. He was graduated from Adelbert College of Western Reserve university, A.B., 1873, A.M., 1876, and was married, Aug. 11, 1874, to Cora Lucinda, daughter of Horace B. and Philena (Lamb) Kingsley of Cleveland, Ohio. He was graduated from the General Theological seminary, New York, 1876; was admitted to the diaconate, July, 1876, and advanced to the priesthood, Sept. 30, 1877; did mission work in and near Cleveland, Ohio, 1876; in Ulster county, N.Y., in 1877, and was rector of Holy Trinity, Danville, Ill., 1878-86, and of St. Paul's (the Pro-Cathedral), Springfield, Ill., 1886-1901. He was consecrated bishop-coadjutor of Quincy at the Cathedral of St. John, Quincy, Aug. 6, 1901, by Bishops Seymour, Grafton and Nicholson, assisted by Bishops Francis, Williams, Anderson and Weller, and became the second bishop of Quincy on the death of Bishop Burgess, Oct. 8, 1901. He was for some time an instructor in the Western Theological seminary, Chicago; was a trustee of the Public library, Danville, Ill., and Springfield, Ill.; local secretary of the Egypt Exploration Fund; deputy to the general convention from the diocese of Springfield in and after 1883; treasurer of the province of Illinois; archdeacon of Springfield; secretary and president of the standing committee; examining chaplain; chaplain of St. Agatha's school and of the Orphanage of the Holy Child, Springfield, and chaplain of the Illinois state senate, 1892. He received the honorary degree of D.D. from Nashotah in 1890, and was instructor in canon law in the Western Theological seminary, Chicago, 1895-1903. His wife died in 1894, leaving six children, one of whom lived but a few years. Bishop Taylor was for many years a reviewer on the staff of the Living Church, and the author of numerous historical and theological papers. He died at Quincy, Ill., April 25, 1903.

THOMAS, Cyrus, ethnologist and entomologist, was born in Kingsport, Tenn., July 27, 1825; son of Stephen and Maria (Rogan) Thomas; grandson of Henry and Margaret (Ramsberg) Thomas and of Daniel and Jane Rogan, and a descendant of John Thomas of Schifferstadt, in Rhenish Bavaria, who landed at Philadelphia, 1730, and settled in Frederick county, Md. He received a liberal education, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1850, and commenced practice in Murphysboro, Ill. He was clerk of Jackson county, Ill., 1850-53; in 1865 abandoned the law and entered the Evangelical Lutheran ministry, serving, 1865-69. He was assistant in the U.S. geological and geographical surveys under Ferdinand V. Hayden, 1869-73. He was married, first, June 13, 1850, to Dorothy Logan, daughter of Dr. John and Elizabeth (Jenkins) Logan, and sister of Gen. John A. Logan, and secondly, April 20, 1865, to Viola L., daughter of James and Jane (Martin) Davis of Youngsville, Pa. He was professor of natural sciences in the Southern Illinois Normal university, 1873; state entomologist, 1876-77; a member of the U.S. entomological commission, 1877, and archaeologist of the U.S. bureau of ethnology from 1882. In the latter capacity, with a corps of assistants, he examined all the prehistoric mounds to be found in the eastern half of time continent, deducing, in 1895, the theory that the ancient remains found in America belonged to two general classes of people; one of these inhabited the Atlantic slope, the other the Pacific, the Rocky Mountain Range being the dividing line, and that the "Mound builders" were the ancestors of the Indians and had no relation with the ancient civilized races of Mexico and Central America, nor with the Pueblo tribes. He was made a member of several scientific societies, and is the author of: Synopsis of the Acrididæ of North America; Noxious and Beneficial Insects of Illinois (5 vols. reports, 1876-80); Study of the Manuscript Troana (1882); Notes in Certain Maya and Mexican Manuscripts (1884); Burial Mounds of the Northern Sections of the United States (1888): Aid to the Study of Maya Codices (1889); The Cherokees and Shawnees in Pre-Columbian Times (1890); Prehistoric Works East of the Rocky Mountains (1891); Mound Explorations of the Bureau of Ethnology (1894); Introduction to American Archæology; Numeral Systems of the Mexican and Central American Tribes (1901); The Mayan Calendar Systems (1901); and contributions to the Evangelical Quarterly Review and to the American Antiquarian.

THOMAS, Jesse Burgess, senator, was born in Shepardstown, Va., in 1777; son of Jesse and Sabina (Symmes) Thomas; grandson of Thomas and Elizabeth Thomas, and a descendant of Lord Baltimore. He removed with his parents to the west in 1799; subsequently studied law in Mason county, Ky., and began practice in Lawrenceburg, Indiana Territory, in March, 1803. He was a member of the territorial legislature, 1805-08, serving as speaker of the house; was elected a delegate to congress from Indiana Territory (which included Illinois), to complete the unexpired term of Benjamin Parke, resigned, serving, Dec. 1, 1808-March 3, 1809; removed to Kaskaskia, and later to Edwardsville, and upon the erection of Illinois into a territory, including the present state of Wisconsin and a part of Michigan, March 7, 1809, he was appointed by President Madison judge of the U.S. supreme court for the northwestern judicial district, which position he held until 1818. He was a delegate from St. Clair county to the convention that framed the state constitution in July, 1818, acting as president of that body; and was one of the first U.S. senators from Illinois, serving, 1818-29, introducing the Missouri Compromise in the 16th congress, 1820, with the amendment which forbade the immigration of free Negroes into the state. He was a delegate to the Whig convention at Harrisburg, Pa., Dec. 4, 1839, and subsequently removed to Mt. Vernon, Ohio, where he died by his own hand, when temporarily insane, May 3, 1853.

THOMAS, Jesse Burgess, jurist, was born at Lebanon, Ohio, July 31, 1806; second son of Richard Symmes and Frances (Pattie) Thomas. He was educated at Transylvania university, Ky., and practised law for a number of years at Springfield, Ill., removing in 1845 to Chicago, where he thenceforth resided. He was for a time attorney-general of Illinois. He was judge of the circuit court, before whom Joseph Smith, founder of Mormonism, was on trial at the time of his assassination. He was twice elected to the supreme bench of Illinois, and served with distinction until his death at Chicago, Ill., Feb. 21, 1850.

THOMAS, Jesse Burgess, clergyman, was born in Edwardsville, Ill., July 29, 1832; son of Jesse Burgess and Adeline Clarissa (Smith) Thomas; grandson of Richard Symmes and Frances (Pattie) Thomas and of Theophilus W. and Clarissa (Rathbone) Smith. His grandfather was a brother of Jesse Burgess Thomas, U.S. senator (q.v.), and his father (1806-50) was judge of the circuit and supreme courts of Illinois, 1840-50. He attended the school of Beaumont Parks at Springfield, and George F. Wilson's English and Classical school at Chicago, Ill., and was graduated from Kenyon college, Gambier, Ohio, A.B., 1850. He was admitted to the bar in 1852; studied in Rochester Theological seminary, 1853-54, but was obliged to leave on account of ill health, and engaged in mercantile business in Chicago, 1854-57. He was married, May 30, 1855, to Abbie Annie, daughter of Dr. Timothy and Mary (Jane) Eastman of Ottawa county, Mich. He practised law in Chicago, 1857-62; was pastor of a Baptist church in Waukegan, Ill., 1862-64; of the Pierrepont Street church, Brooklyn, N.Y., 1864-69; of the First church, San Francisco, Cal., 1869; of the Michigan Avenue church, Chicago, Ill., 1869-74, and resumed his pastorate in Brooklyn, 1874-88. He became professor of church history in the Newton Theological institution, in 1888, the chair vacated by Dr. S. L. Caldwell (q.v.), in 1878. He received the honorary degree of D.D. from the University of Chicago in 1866, and that of LL.D. from Georgetown college, Ky., in 1898. He is the author of: The Old Bible and the New Science (1877); The Mould of Doctrine (1883); Significance of the Historical Element in Scripture.

THOMAS, John Robert, representative, was born at Mr. Vernon, Ill., Oct. 11, 1846; son of Maj. William Allayne and of Caroline (Neely) Thomas; grandson of Col. Nathan and Mary (Creager) Thomas and of Gen. John I., and Jane Robertson (Montgomery) Neely; great-grandson of Capt. Richard Thomas, M.C., and of Isaac and Martha (McClure) Montgomery. Five ancestors served in the American war of the Revolution: Richard Thomas, Joseph Neely, James Montgomery, Thomas McClure and Patrick Henry. He attended the common schools and Hunter collegiate institute, Princeton, Ind.; served in the Union army during the civil war, being promoted from private to captain; studied law, and was admitted to the bar in January, 1869. He served as city attorney of Metropolis, Ill., 1870-71; as state's attorney, 1872-76, and was a Republican representative from the eighteenth, twentieth and twenty-second Illinois districts in the 46th-50th congresses, 1879-89; and served as judge of the U.S. courts of the Indian Territory from July 1, 1897, to June 30, 1901, after which he served as president of the Territorial Trust and Surety company, and engaged in the practice of law at Muskogee, Ind. Ter. He received the degree of LL.D. from McKendree university, Lebanon, Ill, in June, 1897. He was married, Dec. 23, 1870, to Lottie, daughter of Capt. Philip Washington [p.132] and Sarah (Riddle) Culver of Metropolis, Ill.; she died, Oct. 17, 1880. His son, John Robert, Jr., was 1st lieutenant, Troop L., Roosevelt's Rough Riders, Spanish-American war; was promoted 1st lieutenant and battalion adjutant in the 17th U.S. infantry, and as such served three years in the Philippine war. Judge Thomas became a Grand Mason of high degree.

TOWNSHEND, Richard Wellington, representative, was born in Prince George county, Md., April 30, 1840. He attended public and private schools in Washington, D.C., served as a page in the national house of representatives, and removed to Fayette county, Ill., in 1858, where he taught school; was admitted to the bar, 1862, and began practice at McLeansborough. He was clerk of the Hamilton county circuit court, 1863-68; was prosecuting attorney for the twelfth judicial district, 1868-72, and in 1873 settled in practice in Shawneetown, Ill. He was a member of the Democratic state central committee, 1864-65 and 1874-75; a delegate to the Democratic national convention at Baltimore, 1872, and a Democratic representative from the nineteenth Illinois district in the 45th-50th congresses, 1877-89, serving in the last term as chairman of the committee on military affairs. He died in Washington, D.C., March 9, 1889.

TREE, Lambert, Jr., diplomatist, was born in Washington, D.C., Nov. 29, 1832; son of Lambert and Laura M. (Burrows) Tree; grandson of John (soldier in the war of 1812) and Rebecca (Kern) Tree and of Joseph (a soldier in the war of 1812) and Sarah (Jeffers) Burrows, of Pennsylvania; great-grandson of Lambert (a soldier in the Revolutionary war) and Margaret (Donaldson) Tree, of Philadelphia, and of John (a soldier in the Revolution) and Sarah (Wood) Burrows, of New Jersey; and great2-grandson of William Donaldson of Darby, Pa. (landed proprietor, who died, 1757) and Margaret Donaldson, his wife. He attended private schools; was graduated from the University of Virginia, LL.B., 1855; admitted to the bar in Washington, D.C., October, 1855, and in 1856 began practice in Chicago, Ill., where he was married, Nov. 24, 1859, to Anna J., daughter of H. H. and Maria (Meeker) Magic. He was president of the Chicago Law institute, 1864; a judge of the Cook County circuit court, 1870-75; resided abroad, 1875-78; was Democratic candidate for congress, 1878 and 1882, a delegate-at-large to the Democratic national convention, 1884; candidate for U.S. senator, 1885, against Gen. John A. Logan, being defeated by only one vote; U.S. minister to Belgium, by appointment from President Cleveland, 1885-88, and to Russia, 1888-89; a Democratic member of the monetary commission at Washington, D.C., 1891-92, and received a number of votes in the Democratic national convention for the nomination for the Vice-Presidency in 1892. He served as president of the Illinois State Historical Library board; as a life trustee of the Newberry library of Chicago; was actively connected with various local business interests, and a member of several clubs at home and abroad.

TRUMBULL, Lyman, senator, was born in Colchester, Conn., Oct. 12, 1813; son of Benjamin and Elizabeth (Mather) Trumbull; grandson of the Rev. Benjamin Trumbull, the historian (q.v.), and a lineal descendant of Increase Mather, and of John Trumbull, the immigrant. He attended Bacon academy; taught school in Connecticut, 1829-33, and studied and practised law in Greenville, Ga., 1833-36; continuing his practice in Belleville, St. Clair county, Ill., 1837-40. He was a Democratic representative in the Illinois legislature in 1840; secretary of state in 1841; justice of the state supreme court, 1848-53; was elected a Democratic representative in the 34th congress in 1854, but before his term began, was elected U.S. senator, defeating James Shields, Governor Matteson and Abraham Lincoln in 1855, and was [p.196] twice re-ëlected, his last term of service expiring March 3, 1873. While in the senate he was chairman for twelve years of the judiciary committees before and during the war and in the reconstruction period, acting with the Republican party; was the author of the civil rights bill; framed the 13th and 14th amendments to the constitution, and voted against the impeachment of President Johnson, which last course cost him re-election to the senate. He established a law practice in Chicago; was a candidate for the nomination for President before the Republican national convention at Chicago, in 1860, and supported Abraham Lincoln's administration. In 1872 he supported Horace Greeley for President, and afterward acted with the Democratic party, being the unsuccessful Democratic candidate for governor of Illinois in 1880. He was twice married: first, in 1843, to Julia Maria, daughter of Dr. Gershom and Sybil (Slater) Jayne of Springfield, Ill. She died in Washington, D.C., in 1868, and he was married, secondly, in 1877, to Mary, daughter of John Dickinson and Almira (Mather) Ingraham of Saybrook, Conn. He died in Chicago, Ill., June 25, 1896.

VAN SANT, Samuel R., governor of Minnesota, was born in Rock Island, Ill., May 11, 1844; son of John Wesley and Lydia (Anderson) Van Sant; grandson of Nicholas and Mercy (Moore) Van Sent, and of Elias and Catherine (Rogers) Anderson; great-grandson of John Van Sant, an officer in the Revolutionary war, and a descendant of Jacobus Van Zandt, who emigrated from Holland in 1607, and settled in New Amsterdam. He enlisted as a private in the 9th Illinois cavalry in 1861, and served throughout the war; subsequently attended Knox college, and engaged in the river transportation business. He was married, Dec. 7, 1868, to Ruth, daughter of William B. and Sidney (Ross) Hall of Le Claire, Iowa. He was a Republican representative in the state legislature, 1892-96; speaker of the house in 1895, and was nominated governor of Minnesota by the Republican state convention held at St. Paul, Sept. 5, 1900. He was elected by a plurality of 2254 over his Democratic opponent, Gov. John Lind, and was re-elected in 1902 by nearly 60,000 plurality, the largest ever given a governor in the history of the state; his term of office expiring in January, 1905.

VINCENT, John Heyl, M.E. bishop, was born in Tuscaloosa, Ala., Feb. 23, 1832; son of John Himrod and Mary (Reser) Vincent; grandson of Bethuel and Martha (Himrod) Vincent and of Capt. Bernard and Mary (Heyl) Raser, and a descendant of Levi Vincent, a Huguenot, who emigrated from France to the United States in 1676. He removed with his family to his father's birthplace on Montour Ridge, near Milton, Pa., 1838; studied under private instruction; attended the academies at Milton and Lewisburg, Pa., meanwhile teaching school, and registered at Allegheny college, Meadville, Pa., but decided to enter immediately upon a ministerial career. He was licensed to exhort, 1850; attended Wesleyan institute, Newark, N.J., and served as junior preacher on the Newark City mission, 1852; joined the New Jersey conference in 1853; was ordained deacon, 1855, and elder, 1857, serving in North Belleville and Irvington, N.J., until transferred to the Rock River conference. He was pastor at Joliet, Ill., 1857-58, where he organized a normal training class for Sunday-school teachers, and was married, Nov. 10, 1858, to Elizabeth, daughter of Henry and Caroline (Butler) Dusenbury of Portville, N.Y. He held the following pastorates in Illinois; at Mt. Morris, 1859; Galena, 1859; of the Court Street church, Rockford, 1861-64, visiting Europe, Egypt and Palestine, 1862-63, and of Trinity church, Chicago, 1864-65. He founded and edited the Northwest Sunday School Quarterly, 1865; The Sunday-School Teacher, 1866, devising the plan of lessons which subsequently developed into the International Lesson System; was general agent of the M.E. Sunday-school union, 1866, and corresponding secretary and editor of the Union, 1868-84, removing in the former year to Plainfield, N.J. With Lewis Miller, he was one of the founders of the Chautauqua assembly, 1874, Dr. Miller serving as president of the organization, and Mr. Vincent as superintendent of instruction; organized the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific circle in 1878, and from that date officiated as its chancellor. He was elected bishop of the M. E. church by the general conference in 1888, and in 1900 made resident bishop in charge of the European work of the church. Bishop Vincent was residing in Zürich, Switzerland in 1903. His son, George E. Vincent, A.B., Yale, 1885, Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1896, became vice-president of the Chautauqua system in 1888, and in 1900 was appointed associate professor of sociology in the University of Chicago. Bishop Vincent received the honorary degree of D.D. from Ohio Wesleyan university, 1870, and from Harvard, 1896, and that of LL.D. from Washington and Jefferson college, 1885. He served as preacher to Harvard, Yale, Cornell, Wellesley and other colleges, and is the author of: Little Footprints in Bible Lands (1861); The Chautauqua Movement (1886); The Home Book (1886); The Modern Sanday School (1887); Better Not (1887); The Church School and Sunday School Institutes; Earthly Footsteps of the Man of Galilee; To Old Bethlehem; Outline History of England; Our Own Church; Outline History of Greece, and The Church at Home.

WALLACE, William Harvey Lamb, soldier, was born in Urbana, Ohio, July 8, 1821. The family removed to Illinois in 1832, where he was admitted to the bar in 1846, in which year he enlisted in the 1st Illinois regiment of volunteers for service in the Mexican war. He was promoted adjutant; served at Buena Vista, and after the close of the war, practised law, being appointed district attorney in 1853. He was commissioned colonel, 11th Indiana Zouaves, May, 1861, taking part in Grant's attack on Belmont, Mo., Nov. 7, 1861, and on Fort Henry, Feb. 6, 1862, and at the battle of Fort Donelson, Feb. 14-15, commanded a brigade in McClernand's division, serving with distinction, and being promoted brigadier-general in 1862. Owing to the illness of Gen. C. F. Smith, he commanded the 2d division in Grant's Army of the Tennessee at Shiloh, where, with Hurlbut's 4th division, he formed a line of battle in the rear. The two commanders were soon ordered forward for support, Hurlbut sending a brigade to re-enforce Sherman's left, and Wallace one to the aid of McArthur on the right, thus leaving the two remaining brigades of each between the extremes, with no connection. On this line, called by the Confederates the "Hornets' Nest," the battle was stubbornly fought on the 6th of April, until by 4 o'clock, Wallace was left unsupported, save by General Prentiss of the 6th division. Together they vigorously held their ground, the Confederates closing upon each flank, until 5 o'clock, when General Wallace, in the endeavor to extricate his command, was mortally wounded. See: "Shiloh Reviewed" by Maj.-Gen. Don Carlos Buell in "Battles and Leaders of the Civil War." He died in Savannah, Tenn., April 10, 1862.

WARD, Lester Frank, paleontologist, was born in Joliet, Ill., June 18, 1841; son of Justus and Silence (Rolph) Ward; grandson of James and Rachael (Hurd) Ward, and of John and Mary (Osborn) Rolph. He attended several schools in Illinois and Iowa until 1860; studied in Towanda, Pa., 1860-62; served in the civil war, 1862-65, being wounded at Chancelloreville; was employed in the U.S. treasury department, Washington, D.C., 1865-81, as chief of the division of navigation and immigration and as librarian of the bureau of statistics, and meanwhile entered Columbian university, from which he was graduated, A.B., 1869, LL.B., 1871; A.M., 1873. He also studied botany at Washington, D.C., 1872-81, and spent the summer of 1875 in the Wahsatch mountains, making collections of plants and woods for the Centennial exposition. He was married, March 6, 1873, to Rosamond Pierce, daughter of Darius and Mary (Caswell) Sinruns of northern New York. He was assistant geologist of the U.S. geological survey, 1881-83; geologist, 1883-92, and paleontologist of the same from the latter year, meanwhile serving as professor of botany in Columbian university, 1884-86, he was appointed curator of botany and fossil plants in the U.S. national museum, in 1882, and received the honorary degree of LL.D. from Columbian university, 1897. He was made a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Anthropological, Biological and Geological societies of Washington, of the American Philosophical society, the American Academy of Political and Social Science, the American Economic association, the International Geological congress, and the International Institute of Sociology, of which he was president in 1903. He is the author of: Hoeckel's Genesis of Man (1879); The Flora of Washington (1881); Dynamic Sociology (1883); Sketch of Paleobotany (1885); Synopsis of the Flora of the Laramie Group (1887); Types of the Laramie Flora (1887); Geographical Distribution of Fossil Plants (1889); The Psychic Factors of Civilization (1893); The Potomac Formation (1895); Analogies in the Lower Cretaceous of Europe and America (1896); Outlines of Sociology (1898); Cretaceous Formation of the Black Hills (1899); Status of the Mesozoic Floras of the United Slates (first paper, 1900; second paper, 1904); Sociology at the Paris Exposition of 1900 (1901); Contemporary Sociology (1902); Pure Sociology (1903). His Dynamic Sociology, Psychic Factors and Outlines of Sociology, were translated into Russian, but the first-named was not permitted to appear, and its Polish translation was also suppressed. His bibliography included 456 titles in 1903.

WARNER, Vespasian, representative, was born in Mount Pleasant (Farmer City), Ill., April 23, 1842; son of John and Cynthia Ann (Gardiner) Warner; grandson of David and Catherine (Kettner) Warner and of Thomas and Elizabeth (Davis) Gardiner. He removed with his parents to Clinton, Ill., in 1843; attended common and private schools, and Lombard university, Galesburg, Ill., 1860. He subsequently studied law in Clinton; served as a private in Company E, 20th Illinois volunteers, 1861-62; was commissioned 2d lieutenant, Feb. 5, 1862; served in the Army of the Tennessee, being wounded at Shiloh; was promoted captain March 1, 1865, and brevetted major, May 10, 1866; and again March 1, 1867; ordered north after the evacuation of Atlanta, on account of his wounds, and was engaged in a campaign against the Indians, 1865-66, He graduated from Harvard Law school in 1868; admitted to the bar, Feb. 18, 1868; and began practice at Clinton, Ill. He was married March 26, 1868, to Winifred, daughter of Clifton H. and Elizabeth (Richmond) Moore of Clinton. His wife died June 8, 1894, and he was married secondly, Jan. 2, 1898, to Minnie M., daughter of William and Catherine (Lewis) Bishop, of Clinton. He was colonel and judge advocate-general of the Illinois National Guard, 1883-92; a presidential elector on the Harrison and Morton ticket, 1888; and a Republican representative from the thirteenth Illinois district in the 54th-57th congresses, and from the new nineteenth district in the 58th congress, 1893-95.

WASHBURN, Elihu Benjamin, statesman, was born in Livermore, Maine, Sept. 23, 1816; son of Israel and Martha (Benjamin) Washburn; grandson of Capt. Israel and Abiah (King) Washburn. His grandfather was an officer in the Coutinental army during the Revolutionary war, and a descendant of John Washburn, who was secretary of the Plymouth colony in England, emigrated to America in 1631 and settled at Duxbury, Mass. His father settled in Maine in 1806, and engaged in ship-building at White's Landing on the Kennebec river in 1808. He attended the public schools and obtained employment as a printer on the Christian Intelligencer at Gardiner, Maine, 1833-34; taught school, 1834-35; was employed on the Kennebec Journal, Augusta, Maine, 1835-36; studied law at Kent's Hill seminary and with John Otis in Augusta, and was admitted to the bar in 1840. He removed to Galena, Ill., and entered into partnership with Charles S. Hempstead, whose daughter he married, and their son, Hempstead Washburn, born Nov. 11, 1852, became mayor of Chicago in 1891. He was a delegate to the Whig national convention at Baltimore, May 1, 1844, and again, June 16, 1852, in the same city. He was a Whig representative from the Galena district of Illinois in the 33d-40th congresses, 1853-69; serving as chairman of the committee on commerce, 1855-65, and on the joint committee on the impeachment of President Johnson. General Grant was largely indebted to Representative Washburn for favors received at the hands of congress both during and after the civil war and for the bills creating him lieutenant-general and general. He opposed subsidies to railroad companies, and all extravagant appropriations for public improvements, and his opposition to questionable use of the public money made him known as the "Watch-Dog of the Treasury.". He was appointed secretary of state in the first cabinet of President Grant in 1869, which office he resigned a few days after to accept that of U.S. minister to France. He was in Paris during the Franco-German War; was the only foreign minister to continue at his post, and opened the doors of the American embassy to all foreigners seeking protection from the fury of the Commune, and when the empire was overthrown, he was the first foreign representative to recognize the new Republic. He returned to the United States in 1877; settled in Chicago, and on June 2, 1880, declined to have his name used before the Republican national convention as candidate for President. He was obliged to decline the decoration of the Order of the Red Eagle from Emperor William as Contrary to the law of the United States, but he was allowed to accept oil portraits of the Emperor and Prince Bismark from his Majesty, who, when he learned of the death of Minister Washburn, desired that the German flag be displayed at the foot of the catafalque, which request was carried out. He was president of the Chicago Historical society, 1884-87; edited History of the English Settlement in Edwards County, Illinois (1882), and the Edwards Papers (1884), and is the author of: Recollections of a Minister to France (2 vols., 1887). He died in Chicago, Ill., Oct. 22, 1887.

WEBSTER, Joseph Dana, soldier, was born in Old Hampton, N.H., Aug. 25, 1811; son of the Rev. Josiah Webster. He was graduated at Dartmouth, A.B., 1832, in 1835 became a U.S. civil engineer, and in 1837 was commissioned 2d lieutenant of topographical engineers. He fought in the war with Mexico, was promoted 1st lieutenant in July, 1849, and captain in March, 1853. In 1854 he resigned his commission, and made his residence in Chicago, Ill. He was prominently identified with the installation of a system of sewerage, and with the raising of the grade of a portion of the city. In 1861 he superintended the fortifying of Cairo, Ill.; was appointed paymaster with rank of major, U.S.V., June 1, 1861, and in February, 1862, was promoted colonel and given command of the 1st Illinois artillery. He was engaged at the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson, and was chief of artillery at Shiloh, where he assisted materially by arranging twenty or more pieces of artillery on a bluff overlooking a deep ravine, thus forming a nucleus for the final stand of the Union troops on the first day. He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, Nov. 29, 1862, was military governor of Memphis, Tenn., and during the Vicksburg campaign, was once more on Grant's staff. He was chief of staff to General Sherman during his invasion, was brevetted major-general of volunteers March 13, 1865, and resigned his commission Nov. 6, 1865. He was assessor of internal revenue, Chicago, 1869-72; and collector, 1872-76. He died in Chicago, Ill. March 12, 1876.

WENTWORTH, John, representative, was born in Sandwich, N.H., March 5, 1815; son of Paul and Lydia (Coggswell) Wentworth; grandson of John and Margaret (Frost) Wentworth and of Col. Amos and Lydia (Baker) Wallingford Coggswell; great-grandson of Col. John and Joanna (Gilman) Wentworth; great2-grandson of Capt. Benjamin and Elizabeth (Leighton) Wentworth; great3-grandson of Ezekiel and Elizabeth Wentworth, and great4-grandson of William Wentworth, the emigrant. He was taken by his parents to Dover, N.H., in 1819; attended the public schools and academies in New Hampshire, and was graduated from Dartmouth, A.B., 1836, A.M., 1839. He removed to Chicago, Ill., where he obtained employment on the Democrat; was a member of the first meeting of citizens to consider the organization of Chicago as a city; and voted at the first city election in May, 1837. He studied law in Chicago, and also attended the Harvard law school; was admitted to the Illinois bar in 1841; purchased the Chicago Democrat in the same year and conducted it with success until 1861. He was a Democratic representative in the 28th, 33d and 39th congresses, 1843-45; 1853-55 and 1865-67, respectively. He was married Nov. 13, 1844, to Roxanna Marie, daughter of Riley and Roxanna (Atwater) Loomis of Troy, N.Y. He was one of the founders of the antislavery party; was elected mayor of Chicago by the Republican party in 1857, and issued a proclamation calling for volunteers, after Fort Sumter was fired upon in 1861. He served as mayor until 1863; introduced the first steam fire engine in Chicago in 1857, and paid off a large floating debt that had accumulated before his accession to the office. He was a member of the constitutional revision committee of Illinois in 1861; a member of the board of education, 1861-64 and 1868-72; and also of the state board of agriculture. The honorary degree of LL.D. was conferred on him by Dartmouth in 1867. He is the author of: Genealogical, Bibliographical and Biographical Account of the Descendants of Elder William Wentworth (1850); The Wentworth Family (3 vols., 1878). He died in Chicago, Ill., Oct. 16, 1888.

WHITE, Frank, governor of North Dakota, was born in Stillman Valley, Ill., Dec. 12, 1856; son of Joshua and Lucy A. White. He attended the Methodist school at Mt. Morris, Ill., and was graduated at the University of Illinois, B.S., 1880. He removed to Dakota in 1882, and established himself on a farm near Valley City. He was county surveyor for several years, and in 1891 was a representative in the North Dakota legislature. He was state senator, 1892-98, resigning to accompany the regiment of which he was major to the Philippines. He was elected governor of North Dakota in 1900 and reelected in 1909. He was married, Sept. 19, 1894, to Elsie Hadley of Valley City, N.D.

WHITEHOUSE, Henry John, second bishop of Illinois, and 55th in succession in the American episcopate, was born in New York city, Aug. 19, 1803. He was graduated from Columbia, A.B., 1821, A.M., 1824, and from the General Theological seminary, New York city in 1824; was admitted to the diaconate by Bishop White and advanced to the priesthood in St. James's church, Philadelphia, Aug. 26, 1827. He was rector of Christ church, Reading, Pa, 1827-30; of St. Luke's, Rochester, N.Y., 1830-44, and of St. Thomas's, New York city, 1844-51. He was elected second bishop of Illinois in 1851, as successor to Bishop Chase, and was consecrated, Nov. 20, 1851, by Bishops Brownell, Lee and Eastburn, assisted by Bishops Hawks, Potter, George Burgess and Williams. He was the first P.E. bishop to advocate the adoption in the United States of the cathedral system. He delivered the opening sermon at the first Lambeth conference in London, by invitation of the archbishop of Canterbury. The honorary degree of S. T.D. was conferred on him by Hobart in 1834 and by Oxford university, England, in 1867, and that of LL.D. by Columbia in 1865 and by Cambridge university, England, in 1867. He died in Chicago, Ill., Aug. 10, 1874.

WILSON, James Harrison, soldier, was born near Shawneetown, Ill., Sept. 2, 1837; son of Harrison and Katharine (Schneider) Wilson; grandson of Alexander and Elinor (Harrison) Wilson, and a descendant of Isaac Wilson, a sergeant in the Virginia Line from Culpeper county. Alexander Wilson emigrated from Virginia first to Fayette county, Ky., and then to Illinois, where he was a member of the first territorial legislature, and one of the founders of that state. Harrison Wilson served as ensign in the war of 1812, and was a captain in the Black Hawk war. James Harrison Wilson was graduated from the U.S. military academy, sixth in the class of 1860; was assigned to the topographical engineers, served in Washington territory, and on June 10, 1861, was commissioned 2d lieutenant. He was promoted 1st lieutenant, Sept. 9, 1861; was chief topographical engineer of the expedition to Port Royal, 1861-62, and was engaged in the siege and capture of Fort Pulaski, and battle of James Island, being brevetted major. He was acting aide-de-camp to McClellan during the Antietam campaign; was commissioned lieutenant-colonel (assistant inspector-general) of volunteers, Nov. 8, 1862; chief topographical engineer of the Army of the Tennessee under Grant, and during Grant's Vicksburg campaign was assistant engineer and inspector-general of the Army of the Tennessee. He was promoted captain, U.S.A., May 7, 1863; accompanied General Grant to Chattanooga, and was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, Oct. 31, 1863. He was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, U.S.A., for Missionary Ridge, Nov. 24, 1863, and was engineer of the expedition sent to relieve Burnside at Knoxville; during this march, Wilson constructed many bridges in an incredibly short time, building one bridge across the little Tennessee in eight hours, the material being supplied by the neighboring dwellings. In the spring of 1864 Wilson was stationed in Washington as chief of the Cavalry Bureau, and in may be assumed command of the 3d division of the newly organized cavalry corps under Sheridan in the Army of the Potomac. He was brevetted colonel, U.S.A., for the Wilderness; occupied Spottsylvania C.H., May 8, 1864; rode in Sheridan's raid to Haxall's Landing; fought in numerous cavalry combats and actions including Beaver Dam, Yellow Tavern and Hawes' Shop. He commanded a successful raid against the Danville and Southside railroads, which he so broke and destroyed as to sever the connection of Richmond with the South for six weeks; commanded his division in Sheridan's Shenandoah campaign, fighting at Opequan, Sept. 19, 1864, and in October was placed in command of the cavalry corps of the military division of the Mississippi, consisting of seven divisions. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, Oct. 5, 1864, for services during the Rebellion; participated in Thomas's campaign in Tennessee, turning Hood's left at Nashville, Dec. 15-16. and was brevetted brigadier-general U.S.A., March 13, 1865, for services at Nashville, Tenn. He led a cavalry army of 14,000 men into Alabama and Georgia in March and April, 1865, and was brevetted major-general, U.S.A., for the capture of Selma, Ala., with numerous stores and prisoners. Montgomery, Ala., surrendered April 16, and Macon, Ga., capitulated April 20, 1865. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, April 20, 1865, and on May 10, 1865, a detachment of his forces captured Jefferson Davis at Irwinville, Ga. He commanded the Department of Georgia and District of Columbus, 1865, and was at his own request mustered out of the volunteer service, Jan. 8, 1866. He was married, Jan. 3, 1866, to Ella, daughter of Gen. John W. and Mary (Newman) Andrews of Wilmington, Del. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel, 35th infantry, July 28, 1866, and continued on engineer duty in charge of river and harbor works until Dec. 31, 1870, when he resigned from the army. He became interested in railroad enterprises in various parts of the country; was chief engineer and general manager of the New York Elevated railroads, and afterward president of the New York and New England railroad. He traveled in China, and set forth his views on that country in Chinese which passed through three editions. In May, 1898, General Wilson was commissioned major-general of volunteers, being the first one of four civilians to receive that rank. He commanded the 6th corps at Chickamauga, and in Miles's Porto Rican campaign commanded one of the two divisions fighting at Coamo, where he captured the Spanish forces confronting him. He relieved Gen. Joseph C. Breckinridge of the command of the 1st army corps at Lexington, Ky., Oct. 20, 1898. In January, 1899, he transferred the 1st army corps to Cuba, where he commanded the department of Matanzas and Santa Clara for eighteen months. He was sent to China at the outbreak of the Boxer rebellion: commanded a joint American and British column in the capture of the Eight Temples, and commanded the American troops at Peking. On his return from China he was placed on the retired list of the army in compliance with a special act of congress, though he had not reached the retiring age. He is the author of: Life of General Grant with Charles A. Dana (1868); China, Travels and Investigations (1887; 3d ed., 1890); Life of Andrew J. Alexander. He is also the author of various military and biographical papers, lectures and disquisitions.

YATES, Richard, governor of Illinois, was born in Warsaw, Ky., Jan. 18, 1818; son of Henry and Millicent Yates; grandson of Abner Yates, and a descendant of Dr. Michael Yates of Carolina county, Va.; who emigrated from Yorkshire, England. He removed with his parents to Springfield, Ill., 1831; attended Miami university, 1828-30; was graduated from Illinois college, A.B., 1835; studied law; was admitted to the bar in 1838, and began practice in Jacksonville, Ill. He was married in 1838, to Catharine, daughter of William and Mary Geers, of Jacksonville, Ill. He was a representative in the state legislature, 1842-49; a Whig representative from Illinois in the 32d-33d congresses, 1851-55, being defeated as the Republican candidate for re-election to the 34th congress, and was governor of Illinois, 1861-65. He was elected U.S. senator as a Union Republican, serving, 1865-71, and officiating as chairman of the committees on Revolutionary claims and territories; was a delegate to the Loyalists' convention at Philadelphia, Pa., 1866, and was subsequently appointed U.S. commissioner to examine railroads in Arkansas. The honorary degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him by Beloit college in 1865. He died in St. Louis, Mo., Nov. 27, 1873.

YATES, Richard, Jr., governor of Illinois, was born in Jacksonville, Ill., Dec. 12, 1860; son of Richard (q.v.) and Catharine (Geers) Yates. He was graduated from Illinois college, A.B., 1880, A.M., 1883, and from the University of Michigan, LL.B., 1884, commencing practice in Jacksonville, Ill., and serving as city attorney, 1885-91. He was married, Oct. 28, 1888, to Helen, daughter of A. C. and Delia Wadsworth of Jacksonville, Ill. He was the Republican nominee for congressman-at-large, 1892; co-judge of Morgan county, Ill., 1894-97; U.S. collector of internal revenue, Springfield, Ill., 1897-1900, and in 1901 became governor of Illinois, his gubernatorial term to expire in 1905. The honorary degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him in 1902 by the National Swedish college at Rock Island, Ill.

YOUNG, Richard Montgomery, senator, was born in Kentucky in 1796. He removed to Illinois and was one of the first settlers of the town of Quincy. He was admitted to the bar, Sept. 28, 1817; was a representative in the state legislature, 1820-22, and judge of the 3d judicial circuit of Illinois, 1825-29. He was presidential elector on the Jackson and Calhoun ticket in 1829; judge of the 5th judicial circuit of Illinois, 1829-36, and U.S. senator, 1837-43. He was commissioned a state agent to negotiate the internal improvement bonds in 1839, and was appointed associate justice of the U.S. supreme court, Feb. 4, 1843, resigning Jan. 25, 1847. On Jan. 6, 1847, he was appointed by President Polk commissioner of the general land office, resigning Jan. 24, 1850. He succeeded Thomas Jefferson Campbell, deceased, as clerk of the house of representatives, April 7, 1850, serving till Dec. 1, 1851. He died in Washington, D.C., about 1852.

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