Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable
LAWLER, Frank, representative, was born in Rochester, N.Y., June 25, 1842. He attended the public schools until 1855, when a serious accident to his father made it necessary for him to help support the family and he was a newsboy on the railroad, 1855-58; after that time he learned the trade of ship-builder and became president of the Ship-carpenters and Ship-calkers' association, taking an active part in organizing and maintaining trade and labor unions. He was employed in the post-office at Chicago, Ill., 1869-77; was a member of the city council, 1876-85; and a representative, elected by the Democrats of the second district of Illinois, in the 49th, 50th and 51st congresses, 1885-91, serving on the committee on levees and improvements of the Mississippi river. He died in Chicago, Ill., Jan. 17, 1896.
LEAKE, Joaeph Bloomfield, soldier, was born in Deerfield, N.J., April 1, 1828; son of Lewis and (Lydia) Leake, and grandson of Levi Leake. He removed with his parents to Cincinnati in November, 1836; to Davenport, Iowa, in November, 1856, and to Chicago, Ill., in November, 1871. He was graduated from Miami, A.B., 1846, A.M., 1849, and was admitted to the bar, Jan. 16, 1850. He was a representative in the Iowa legislature, 1861-62; and was elected a state senator for four years in 1862, but after serving one session he resigned to join the U.S. army as a captain in the 90th Iowa volunteers. He was lieutenant-colonel of the regiment, 1862-65, and was brevetted colonel and brigadier-general, U.S.V., March 13, 1865. He was again elected state senator in 1866, served as chairman of the judiciary committee and resigned in 1861 to practice law. He was attorney of Scott county, Iowa, 1866-71; president of the board of education of Davenport, Iowa, 1868-71; U.S. attorney for the northern district of Illinois, 1879-84, and attorney for the board of education of Chicago, Ill., 1887-91, after which time he practised law in Chicago.
LE MOYNE, John Valcoulon, representative, was born in Washington, Pa., Nov. 11, 1828; son of Dr. Francis Julius and Madeleine Romaine (Bureau) Le Moyne, and grandson of John Peter Romaine and Madeleine Françoise Charlotte (Marret) Bureau. Both his grandfathers came from France in 1790, and were of the French colony which founded the town of Gallipolis, Ohio. He was graduated from Washington college, Pa., A.B., in 1847; studied law in Pittsburg, Pa., and was admitted to the bar there in 1852. He removed immediately to Chicago, Ill. He was married, March 28, 1853 to Julia M. Murray, of Pittsburg. He was the unsuccessful candidate of the Liberal party for representative in the 43d congress in 1872, and was elected to the 44th congress as a Democrat, from the third Illinois district, defeating Representative Farwell, who claimed the seat. He took his seat in 1876, and served until the close of the 44th congress, March 3, 1877. He traveled in Europe in 1887, and on his return retired from business and removed to Melvale, near Baltimore, Md.
LINCOLN, Abraham, sixteenth president of the United States, was born in a log cabin on the Big South Fork of Nolin Creek, three miles from Hodgensville, LaRue county, Ky., Feb. 12, 1809; eldest son and second child of Thomas and Nancy (Hanks) Lincoln; grandson of Abraham and Mary (Shipley) Lincoln; great grandson of John Lincoln, who emigrated from New Jersey to Pennsylvania and thence to the wilds of western Virginia about 1758; great2 grandson of Mordecai and Hannah Bewne (Slater) Lincoln, this Mordecai removing from Scituate, Mass., in 1714 to Monmouth county, N.J., and thence to Pennsylvania; great3 grandson of Mordecai and Sarah (Jones) Lincoln, this Mordecai removing from Hingham to Scituate, Mass., about 1704, where he set up a furnace for smelting iron ore; and great4 grandson of Samuel Lincoln, born in Norfolk county, England, in 1620, who emigrated to Salem, Mass., in 1637 and in 1640 joined his brother Thomas, who had settled in Hingham, Mass. The Lincolns were evidently men of considerable wealth and of good social position. Thomas Lincoln, father of the President, inherited some property but was an improvident man, by trade a carpenter and accustomed to seek work from place to place. In the autumn of 1816 he removed to Indiana where his wife died Oct. 5, 1816, and he returned to Kentucky and was married secondly to Sarah (Bush) Johnston, an intelligent and industrious widow. Abraham's attendance at school occupied hardly one year, but he improved every opportunity for acquiring knowledge. His only books were the Bible, "Æsop's Fables," "Robinson Crusoe ", "The Pilgrim's Progress," Weems's "Life of Washington" and a history of the United States. During his boyhood and youth he acquired a local reputation as a wit. He was also a successful backwoods orator, speaking whenever opportunity offered on temperance, national politics and other topics. The Lincoln family removed to Sangamon county, Illinois, where Abraham assisted his father in building a cabin in the forest. He obtained employment as a farm hand, and in the spring of 1832 on the outbreak of the Black Hawk war he was elected captain of a company of volunteers. On the expiration of his term of service he re-enlisted as a private and served until mustered out in June, 1832. In March, 1832, he had announced himself a candidate for representative in the state legislature and on his return from the war he began his electioneering. He was not elected, standing third on a list of eight contestants, but out of the 208 votes cast in Sangamon county he received 205. He then engaged in the grocery business at New Salem as junior partner of the firm of Berry & Lincoln, but this venture ended disastrously within a year, and he was responsible for the indebtedness of the firm which he discharged after many years. He was postmaster at New Salem in 1833; was elected deputy surveyor of Sangamon county in January, 1834; was a Whig representative in the state legislature, 1834-42, and was instrumental in removing the state capital from Vandalia to Springfield. He studied law, and in March, 1837, was admitted to the bar. He settled in Springfield and formed a partnership with John S. Stuart. He was a candidate on the Whig electoral ticket in 1840 and stumped the state for Harrison and Tyler. He was married Nov. 4, 1842, to Mary Todd, a native of Lexington, Ky., who was residing in Springfield with her sister, Mrs. Ninian W. Edwards. His partnership with Mr. Stuart was dissolved in 1841, and a new partnership was formed with Stephen T. Logan, which continued until 1843, when a connection with William H. Herndon was formed. This firm, of which Mr. Lincoln was senior partner, was dissolved by Mr. Lincoln's death. He was a candidate on the Whig presidential electoral ticket in 1844 and spoke throughout Illinois and a part of Indiana for Clay and Frelinghuysen. He was a representative in the 30th congress, 1847-49, having been elected in 1846 over Peter Cartwright, the Democratic candidate. He canvassed the state for Taylor and Fillmore during the spring of 1848, and after the adjournment of congress, Aug. 14, 1848, he spoke in New England. While in congress he opposed the extension of slavery, voting for the Wilmot proviso. He also drew up a bill prohibiting the bringing of slaves into the District of Columbia, the bill containing other restrictions, the measure to be decided by popular vote in the district; and his bill received some support. After leaving congress he tried unsuccessfully to obtain the appointment of commissioner of the general land office and declined the appointment of governor of the newly organized Territory of Oregon. He was a representative in the state legislature in the winter of 1854, but resigned in order to become a candidate before the legislature for the U.S. senate. In the Whig caucus in February, 1855, he received 45 votes on the first ballot against 41 for James Shields, the next candidate, but on the tenth ballot Lyman Trumbull was nominated. On the organization of the Republican party in 1854 Lincoln became prominently identified with it and during the Republican national convention at Philadelphia, June 17, 1856, which nominated Frémont and Dayton, he received 110 votes as candidate for Vice-President. During the campaign he made over fifty speeches and became prominent as a leader of the new party. In 1858 he was the Republican nominee for U.S. senator to succeed Stephen A. Douglas, and on July 24 he challenged Douglas to a series of debates. The election resulted in a victory for Douglas, though Lincoln had a majority of the popular vote. Lincoln afterward spoke at Columbus and at Cincinnati, Ohio, and on Feb. 27, 1860, he spoke in New York city being introduced by William Cullen Bryant as "an eminent citizen from the west, hitherto known to you only by reputation." He then delivered speeches in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire and Connecticut. His entire argument was based on the question, "Is slavery right or wrong-" After the debates with Douglas in 1858 Lincoln was urged to seek the nomination for President, but he repeatedly discouraged the suggestion. He reconsidered the matter, however, in 1859-60, and consented to be a candidate, and the Republican state convention of Illinois instructed their delegates to vote for him. On May 16, 1860, the Republican national convention met at Chicago, where the chief candidates were William H. Seward, Abraham Lincoln, Salmon P. Chase, Simon Cameron, Edward Bates and William L. Dayton. Seward led in the first two ballots, Lincoln standing second. On the third ballot Lincoln had 231 1/2 votes to Seward's 180, 235 votes being necessary for nominaton, and before the count was announced four votes were transferred to Lincoln by a delegate from Ohio. Other delegates followed his example and Lincoln received 354 votes out of a possible 465, the nomination being made unanimous on the motion of William M. Evarts. Hannibal Hamlin of Maine was nominated for Vice-President. Stephen A. Douglas was nominated by a wing of the Democratic party with Herschel V. Johnson for Vice-President, at Baltimore, June 18, 1860. After a spirited campaign Lincoln was elected. Nov. 6. 1860, the popular vote standing 1,866,352 for Lincoln and Hamlin, 1,375,157 for Douglas and Johnson, 847,963 for Breckinridge and Lane, 589,581 for Bell and Everett, and the electoral vote was 180 for Lincoln, 12 for Douglas, 12 for Breckinridge and 39 for Bell. A constitution for the provisional government of the Confederate States of America was adopted at Montgomery, Ala., Feb. 8, 1861, by deputies from Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Lousiana, Mississippi and South Carolina. On Feb. 9, 1861, Jefferson Davis was elected President, and Alexander H. Stephens Vice-President, and all U.S. property within the limits of the Confederacy was declared confiscate. Major Anderson, with his small force in Fort Moultrie, on the west end of Sullivan's Island at the entrance of Charleston barber, learning the determination of the South Carolina government to possess themselves of the U.S. government property, evacuated the fort on Dec. 26, 1860, and raised the flag over Fort Sumter, constructed on a made island midway between Forts Moultrie and Johnson, and there awaited reinforcements from the national government. The South Carolina insurgents took possession of all the other forts in the harbor and manned them, at the same time building a large floating ironclad battery. After a journey to Washington, attended with considerable personal danger, Mr. Lincoln was inaugurated March 4, 1861, and in his inaugural address he declared the union of the states to be perpetual, secession to be illegal, and his purpose "to hold, occupy and possess the property and places belonging to the government and to collect the duties and imposts." He also declared that the position of the Republican party regarding slavery was to prevent its extension, but not to interfere with the institution in states where it already lawfully existed. On April 12, 1861, the Confederates opened fire on Fort Sumter and continued the bombardment until the fort was rendered untenable, and as the reinforcements and provisions sent by the Star of the West, which reached the harbor Jan. 9, 186l, failed to reach the fort, Major Anderson had no choice but to surrender, which he did April 13, 1861, and he evacuated the fort April 14. This action on the part of the South aroused great consternation in the North and political differences were largely forgotten in the desire to preserve the Union. On April 15, 1861, the [p.427] President called for 75,000 three-months volunteers and summoned congress to assemble in extra session on July 4, 1861. On April 17, 1861, President Davis also called for 32,000 volunteers and offered "letters of marque and reprisal to owners of private armed vessels" to depredate upon U.S. commerce; on the same day Virginia seceded, and on April 19 President Lincoln proclaimed a blockade of the Confederate ports, which then included South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisana, and to which were added North Carolina and Virginia April 19, and the same day the Massachusetts troops were attacked by a mob in the streets of Baltimore and two soldiers were killed. On May 3, 1861, President Lincoln called for volunteers for three years; ordered the regular army increased, and directed the enlistment of additional seamen. On March 5, 1861, the President had sent in his nominations for his cabinet, all of which had been confirmed. Willhath H. Seward of New York was named as secretary of state; Sahoon P. Chase of Ohio secretary of the treasury; Simon Cameron of Pennsylvania secretary of war; Gideon Welles of Connecticut secretary of the navy; Caleb B. Smith of Indiana secretary of the interior; Edward Bates of Missouri attorney-general; Montgomery Blair of Maryland postmaster-general. The following changes were made in the cabinet: Secretary Cameron resigned his portfolio to accept the position of U. S. minister to Russia, Jan. 11, 1862, and the portfolio of war was accepted by Edwin M. Stanton of Pennsylvania, Jan. 15, 1862; W. P. Fessenden of Maine was appointed secretary of the treasury, July 1, 1864, to succeed Salmon P. Chase, made chief justice of the U.S. supreme court, and he resigned to take a seat in the U.S. senate, and was succeeded March 7, 1865, by Hugh McCulloch of Indiana; John P. Usher of Indiana was appointed secretary of the interior, Jan. 8, 1863, to succeed Caleb B. Smith, appointed U.S. circuit judge of Indiana; James Speed of Kentucky was appointed attorney-general Dec. 2, 1864, to succeed Edward Bates, resigned; and William Dennison of Ohio was appointed postmaster-general to succeed Montgomery Blair, who resigned at the request of the President. During Lincoln's administrations he made the following diplomatic appointments: minister to Great Britain, Charles Francis Adams of Massachusetts; minister to France, William L. Dayton of New Jersey, who was succeeded at his death in 1864 by John Bigelow of New York; minister to Austria, Anson Burlingame of Massachusetts, who was not received by that government on account of his political opinions, and was succeeded by John Lothtop Motley of Massachusetts; minister to Russia, Cassius M. Clay of Kentucky, who was succeeded by Simon Cameron of Pennsylvania in 1862; minister to Italy, George P. Marsh of Vermont; and minister to Spain, Carl Schurz of Wisconsin, 1861-62, who was succeeded by Gustavus Werner of Illinois, 1862-64, and H. J. Perry of New Hampshire, who served as chargé d'affaires until the appointment of John P. Hale of New Hampshire in 1865. The President's message delivered before both houses of congress July 4 1861, went far toward reassuring the people, a large number of whom were not without uneasiness as to the ability of the President to meet the crisis. He briefly stated the condition of affairs, announced his intention of standing by the statements made in his inaugural address, and asked that congress would place at the control of the government at least 400,000 men and $400,000,000. To his request congress promptly responded by voting 500,000 men and $500,000,000. The early operations of the Confederate and Federal armies were confined to Virginia and Missouri. The first clash of arms between the two forces was at Philippi, Va., June 3, 1861, in which the Confederates were defeated by the Federal army under Gen. G. B. McClellan. This was followed by the Confederate victory at Big Bethel, Va., June 10, 1861, and by the Federal victories at Romney, Va., June 11, 1861, and at Boonville, Mo., June 17, 1861; the Confederate victory at Carthage, Mo., July 5, 1861, and their defeat at Rich Mountain, Va., July 11, 1861. On July 20 the President summoned Gen. George B. McClellan from western Virginia to Washington, and on his arrival in August, 1861, assigned him to the command of the Army of the Potomac. On July 3, 1861, the President created the department of the west, placing it under command of Gen. John C. Frémont. On Aug. 31, 1861, Frémont issued a proclamation announcing that he would emancipate all slaves of those in arms against the United States. The President considered this premature and asked Frémont to withdraw the proclamation, which he declined to do, and the President annulled it in a public order, and on Nov. 21, 1861, Frémont was relieved of his command just as he had overtaken the Confederate forces at Springfield, Mo. The battle of Bull Run, Va., July 21, 1861, resulted in a Federal defeat; the battle of Dug Spring, Mo., Aug. 2, 1861, in a Federal victory; Wilson's Creek, Mo., Aug. 10, 1861, in a Federal defeat; Hattaras Inlet, N.C., Aug. 28-29, in a Federal victory, and Ball's Bluff, Oct. 21, in a Federal defeat. On the retirement of Gen. Winfield Scott, Oct. 31, 1861, General McClellan succeeded him as general-in-chief of all the armies of the United States. The year closed with the capture of Port Royal, S.C., Nov. 7, 1861, and on the same date the indecisive battle of Belmont, Mo., between Generals Grant and Polk. On Nov. 8, 1861, Captain Wilkes, in command of the U.S. steamer San Jacinto took from the English mail steamer Trent the Confederate commissioners James M. Mason and John Slidell, and the President, by the advice of Secretary Seward and other members of his cabinet apologized to the British Government, explaining that Captain Wilkes should have brought the steamer into port as a prize, as we had always contended, instead of adjudicating the case himself at sea, and therefore gave up the commissioners. The President issued his "General War Order No. 1," Jan. 27, 1862, in which he directed "that the 22d day of February, 1869, be the day for a general movement of the land and naval forces of the United States against the insurgent forces," and while it was not found practicable to carry his order through, it quieted the tumult in the north, where there was an almost universal demand that the Federal army should proceed at once to capture the Confederate capital, making the battle cry "On to Richmond." The campaign of 1862 opened with the victory at Mill Springs, Ky., by the Federal forces under Gen. George H. Thomas, Jan. 19 and 20, and on Feb. 6, 1862, Fort Henry, Tenn., surrendered to Flag-Officer Foote. General Burnside, who had been placed in command of the department of North Carolina Jan. 7, 1862, won a Federal victory at Roanoke Island, N.C., Feb. 8, 1862, and Fort Donelson, Tenn., surrendered to General Grant Feb. 16, 1862. These Union victories were repeated in the battles of Pea Ridge, Ark., by Gen. Samuel R. Curtis, March 6-8, 1862, and the battle of New Madrid, Mo., by Gen. John Pope, March 14, 1862. On March 8, 1862, the Confederate ram Virginia (late Merrimac) wrought havoc with the Federal fleet at Hampton Roads, Va., and was herself defeated by the U.S. iron-clad Monitor, March 9, 1862. The Confederate victory at Newbern, N.C., March 14, 1862, was followed by the Federal victories near Winchester, Va., March 23, by Gen. James Shields; at Shiloh, Tenn., by Grant, April 6-7, 1862; the capture of Island No. 10 with 6000 men by Flag-Officer Foote and General Pope, April 7, 1862, and the capture of Fort Pulaski, Ga., by Gen. Quincy A. Gillmore, April 10-12, 1862. On April 24, 1862, the Federal fleet under Flag-Officer Farragut passed Forts Jackson and St. Philip, and on April 25 New Orleans was captured. On May 5, 1862, General McClellan forced the Confederates to evacuate Williamsburg, Va.; Gen. John E. Wool captured Norfolk, Va., May 10; Hanover court-house, Va., was captured by Gen. Fitz-John Porter, May 27, and on the same day General Beaureguard evacuated Corinth, Miss. In a series of battles, May 27, May 31 and June 23 to July 1, which included Seven Pines and Fair Oaks, McClellan was forced to change his base to the James river, as Gen. T. J. Jackson had marched down the valley and threatened Washington, which prevented the President from carrying out his intention of sending McDowell with his 40,000 men to his support. On June 3, 1862, Gen. Robert E. Lee was appointed to the chief command of the Confederate army, and on June 26 he engaged McClellan at Mechanicsville, Va. The ensuing seven days' battles, ending July 1, resulted in McClellan being ordered to evacuate the Peninsula and join Pope's Army of Virginia. The Confederates were again victorious at Cedar Mountain, Aug. 9, 1862, in the battles between Manassas and Washington, D.C., under Pope, Aug. 26 to Sept. 1, 1862, and in the battle of Richmond, Ky., under Kirby Smith, Aug. 30, 1862. In September, 1862, Lee began his invasion of Maryland and crossed the Potomac near Point of Rocks. The President asked McClellan to resume the command of the Army of the Potomac. On Sept. 15, 1862. Harper's Ferry with 12,000 men was surrendered to Gen. Thomas J. Jackson, and after the battle of Antietam, Md., Sept. 16-17, 1862, Lee retreated toward Richmond. The Federal army under Rosecrans were victorious at Iuka, Miss., Sept. 19 and at Corinth, Miss., Oct. 3-4, 1862, and the Confederates under Bragg made an unsuccessful attack at Perryville, Ky., Oct. 8, 1862. On Nov. 5, 1862, Gen. G. B. McClellan was removed from command of the Army of the Potomac and General Burnside was appointed in his place. The disasters which befell the army did not end, however, with McClellan's removal, as unexpected defeats were suffered by General Burnside at Fredericksburg, Va., with a loss of 12,000 men, Dec. 11-15, 1862, and by Gen. Joseph Hooker at Chancellorville, Va., May 1-5, 1863, and no positive gains were made in the west. Meantime the subject of the emancipation of the slaves had engaged the President. On March 6, 1862, he sent to congress a special message recommending the adoption of a joint resolution: "That the United States ought to co-operate with and aid pecuniarily any state adopting gradual abolishment of slavery." This proposition was not cordially received by the border states and made evident the fact that emancipation was not desired. The bill was passed, however, and on March 10 the President gathered together some of the border state members and tried to win them over to his views. After two days' consideration the project was given up. On April 2, 1862, congress passed an act emancipating the slaves in the District of Columbia; on May 9, 1862, General Hunter proclaimed martial law in Georgia, Florida and South Carolina, declaring the slaves free, which order the President at once revoked as unauthorized; on June 19, 1862, a bill passed congress prohibiting slavery wherever congress had authority, and on July 17, 1862, a measure "for the confiscation of the property of rebels, and giving freedom to the persons they hold in slavery," after being amended, was passed. In July, 1862, amendments were made to a bill concerning the calling forth of the militia, permitting the enlistment of negroes in the Union army, and making thereafter free each person so enlisted. This bill aroused much criticism and was finally modified so as to relate only to slaves of rebel owners. On Sept. 22, 1862, the President issued a preliminary proclamation that unless the in habitants of the revolted states returned to their allegiance by Jan. 1, 1863, the slaves would be declared free; but this proclamation had no effect. On Jan. 1, 1863, the President issued his emancipation proclamation in which he stated that all persons held as slaves in certain states and parts of states being then in rebellion should be free and that the government would "recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons." General Lee invaded Maryland and Pennsylvania, in June, 1863, and on July 1-3 the battle of Gettysburg, Pa., was fought in which the Federal army under Gen. George G. Meade defeated the Confederates under Lee; on July 4, 1863, Vicksburg surrendered to General Grant, and on July 8, Port Hudson, La., surrendered to the Federals under General Banks. Recruits now being needed in numbers far above the enlistments, on May 3, 1863, congress passed a bill making every able-bodied citizen of military age liable for service, a commutation of $300 for exemption being permitted, and on the failure of the citizens to present themselves for enrolment, the President ordered a draft. This led on July 13 to the draft riots in New York city, and soon after the bounty system was substituted. On July 16 Jackson, Miss., was destroyed by General Sherman, and in September Chattanooga, Tenn., was occupied by the Confederates under Gen. George B. Crittendon. The battle of Chickamauga, Ga., Sept. 19-20, 1863, resulted in a victory for the Confederate General Bragg, and a Federal loss of 16,000 men. Bragg was defeated, however, at the battles of Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain, Nov. 23-25, and the siege of Knoxville was raised by Longstreet, Dec. 4, 1863. In December, 1863, the 13th amendment, providing that slavery should not exist within the United States, was introduced into the house, and in January, 1864, in the senate. On June 15, 1864, the vote was taken but the result being a deficiency of 27 votes the question was laid over till the next session. On Jan. 28, 1865, the vote was retaken and resulted in 119 ayes and 56 nays, and the 13th amendment was adopted. A motion to adjourn in honor of the event was made and carried, and a great popular demonstration followed. On Feb. 1, 1864, the President and Secretary Seward met on the River Queen a commission sent by President Davis to inquire into the possible adjustment of affairs between the North and South, but the conference broke up without finding any basis for an agreement. The campaign of 1864 opened with General Sherman's raid from Vicksburg, Feb. 14, 1864. On April 18, Fort Pillow was captured by the Confederates and the Negro troops were massacred. On May 5-7, the battles of the Wilderness occurred between Grant and Lee, and Lee was driven back. On May 4 Sherman began his march to Atlanta and the sea with 98,000 men, and on May 10-12 Grant attacked Lee at Spotsylvania court house and defeated him. On June 8, 1864, Lincoln was unanimously renominated for President, with Andrew Johnson as Vice-President, and he was elected Nov. 8, 1864, receiving 2,216,067 popular votes against 1,808,725 for McClellan, the Democratic nominee. The electoral vote was 212 for Lincoln and 21 for McClellan. At the battle of Cold Harbor, June 1-3, 1864, and at Petersburg, Va., June 16-18, 1864, General Grant was repulsed by Lee, but he began a siege of Petersburg, June 18. Sherman meanwhile won the battle of Resaca, Ga., May 13-15, 1864, and the battle of Dallas, Ga., May 25-28, but at Kenesaw Mountain he was repulsed June 27, 1864. On July 22-28 the battles of Atlanta took place, in which Sherman was victorious. On July 30 occurred the explosion of the Petersburg crater and the subsequent repulse of the Federal charge. The principal naval operations of 1864 were the sinking of the C.S. steamer Alabama by the U.S. steamer Keatsarge, off Cherbourg, France, and the battle of Mobile Bay, in which the Federal fleet under Farragut was victorious. Sherman captured Atlanta, Ga., Sept. 2, 1864, Savannah, Ga., Dec. 22, 1864, Columbia, S.C., Feb. 17, 1865, and Bentonville, N.C., March 19, 1865. General Sheridan won the battle of Winchester, Va., Sept. 19, and the battle of Fisher's Hill, Va., Sept. 22, 1864. President Lincoln was inaugurated for a second term March 4, 1865, amid popular rejoicing. On April 2 Grant carried the outer lines of the Confederate works at Petersburg, and on April 3 Petersburg and Richmond were evacuated by General Lee, who surrendered his army to General Grant at Appomattox court house, Va., April 9, 1865. The President visited General Grant at his headquarters at City Point and entered Richmond shortly after the evacuation. On April 11, 1865,: Washington was illuminated in honor of the surrender of Lee, and on the evening of April 14, 1865, the President, Mrs. Lincoln, Miss Clara Harris and Major Ruthbone occupied a box at Ford's Theatre, Washington to witness the play "Our American Cousin." At 10:30 in the evening an obscure actor, entered the President's box from the rear of the stage and holding a pistol to the President's head, fired. The President fell forward unconscious, and in the confusion which followed the assassin leaped upon the stage but broke his leg in the leap, his spur being entangled in the American flag that draped the box. The President was carried to a house opposite the theatre where, on the morning of April 15, 1865, he died. On April 19, 1865, the funeral took place at the White House. The body was laid in state at the White House, and was there viewed by a great number of people. It was guarded by a company of high officers of the army and navy. The assassin of the President was found in a barn by a squadron of troops April 27, 1865, and was shot by a soldier before the officer could demand his surrender. The remains of the President lay in state in Baltimore, Harrisburg, Philadelphia, New York, Albany, Buffalo, Cleveland and Chicago; and at each place immense funeral processions marched through the streets and the whole country was in mourning. The funeral car reached Springfield, Ill., having travelled a distance of nearly 2000 miles, and the body was buried in Oak Ridge cemetery, May 4, 1865. A monument of white marble marks the spot. Numerous statues of Lincoln adorn the public places of most of the larger cities of the United States. Henry Kirke Brown executed the one in Union Square, New York city, and that in Brooklyn; Thomas Ball's Emancipation group appears in Lincoln Park, Washington, D.C., and in Park Square, Boston; a statue by Mrs. Vinnie Ream Hoxie is in Statuary Hall in the national capitol, one by Augustus St. Gaudens in Chicago, and one by Randolph Rogers in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia. The honorary degree of LL.D. was conferred on Mr. Lincoln by Columbia in 1861, and by the College of New Jersey in 1864. Portraits in oil were painted from life by Alban J. Conant, Frank B. Carpenter, Matthew Wilson, Thomas Hicks, and William E. Marshall. Mr. Carpenter also painted "The Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation" and wrote: "Six Months in the White House." After his death, Healy, Page and many other painters produced excellent portraits after his numerous photographs. A large collection of his photographs was reproduced in MeClure's Magazine with an illustrated "Life" and "Early Life of Abraham Lincoln." by Ida M. Tarbell (1895-96); and Yolk and Mills took life masks from which they executed busts. Mr. Lincoln's "Speech at Cooper Union, Feb. 27, 1860," was issued in pamphlet form and widely circulated, and selections from his speeches and messages were published in 1865. Joseph H. Barrett, J. G. Holland, W. M. Thayer, B. F. Morris, Henry J. Raymond, Ward H. Lamon, W. O. Stoddard, Isaac N. Arnold, Harriet Beecher Stowe, D. W. Bartlett, Charles G. Leland, J. C. Power, Nicolay and Hay, John T. Morse, Carl Schurz, William D. Howells, Ida M. Tarbell are the more prominent of his numerous biographers. In the selection of names for a place in the Hall of Fame for Great Americans, New York university, made in 1900, his was one of the thirty-seven names in "Class M, Rulers and Statesmen," and received a place, having ninety-six votes, equalling the votes given to Daniel Webster and exceeded only by the ninety-seven votes given to George Washington. President Lincoln died in Washington. D.C., April 15, 1865.
LINCOLN, Robert Todd, cabinet officer, was born in Springfield, Ill., Aug. 1, 1843; son of Abraham and Mary (Todd) Lincoln. He attended a local academy, 1850-53; the Illinois State university, 1853-59, and Phillips Exeter academy, and was graduated from Harvard in 1864. He studied for a short time at the Harvard Law school; applied for admission in the military service and was commissioned captain, serving on the staff of General Grant throughout the final campaign of the civil war. He resumed his law studies at Chicago, Ill.; was admitted to the bar Feb. 16, 1867, and practised in Chicago. He was appointed supervisor in south Chicago in 1876; was a delegate to the Republican state convention held at Springfield in 1880, and was the same year chosen a presidential elector. He was appointed secretary of war in President Garfield's cabinet in 1881, and upon the assassination of the President and the accession of Vice-President Arthur to the presidency, he was the only member of the cabinet that was retained. In 1884 he was prominently mentioned as nominee for President, but declined to oppose the nomination of President Arthur. On the expiration of Arthur's administration he returned to Chicago and continued the practice of law. He was U.S. minister to Great Britain by appointment of President Harrison, 1889-93. Upon the death of George M. Pullman in 1897 he became acting president of the Pullman Palace Car company. The honorary degree of LL.D. was conferred on him by Harvard in 1898.
LIVERMORE, Mary Ashton (Rice), reformer, lecturer and author, was born in Boston, Mass., Dec. 19, 1820; daughter of Timothy and Zebiah Vose (Ashton) Rice; granddaughter of Silas and Abigail (Hagar) Rice and of Capt. Nathaniel and Rachel (Glover) Ashton of London, England, and a descendant of Edmund Rice, who came from England, and settled in Sudbury, Mass., in 1639. She attended the Hancock school, Boston, Mass., and was graduated from the Female Seminary at Charlestown, Mass., in 1838, having earned her tuition by teaching in the junior department of the seminary throughout her course. She was instructor in Latin, French and Italian there, 1838-41; a governess in Virginia, 1841-43, and principal of a school in Duxbury, Mass., 1842-45. She was married, May 6, 1845, to the Rev. Daniel Parker Livermore of Leicester, Mass., a Universalist minister. They settled in Fall River, Mass., where he had a pastorate and from there she accompanied him to Connecticut, New York and Illinois. Mr. Livermore was an earnest believer in woman suffrage, and she soon became a strong supporter of the movement. She was active in anti-slavery work and in the Washingtonian temperance movement, and for years wrote, organized and labored for that reform. She removed to Chicago, II1., in 1857, where her husband became proprietor and editor and she associate editor of the New Covenant, a Universalist paper. In 1862 she was appointed agent of the U.S. Sanitary Commission, with headquarters at Chicago, and with others directed and carried on the hospital relief work of the Northwest, organizing soldiers' aid societies, collecting sanitary supplies, and detailing nurses to the hospitals. Site served as a member of the special relief corps in 1863, which visited hospitals and camps on the Mississippi river, and worked their way among the suffering soldiers besieging Vicksburg. She made her first public speech in Dubuque, Iowa, where she presented to the people the sanitary needs of the soldiers at the front and in the hospitals. In that same year, with Mrs. Hoge, she organized the Northwestern fair which netted $100,000 for the commission. Woman suffrage engrossed her active energies, and in 1809 she started The Agitator to aid the reform, and in 1870 she returned to Boston, where she edited the Woman's Journal, into which her own paper was merged until 1872. She resigned her position to enter the lecture field, her lecture topics including biographical, historical, political, religious and reformatory subjects, and as a lecturer she traveled over 25,000 miles annually, visiting every state in the Union, and also Scotland and England. Site organized and was the first president of the Illinois Woman Suffrage association, 1869; president of the American Woman Suffrage association, 1880, and was sent to the Massachusetts Republican convention, charged with the presentation of temperance and woman suffrage resolutions. She was the first president of the Woman's Congress, 1872-73; first president of the Massachusetts Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 1874-84, and of the Beneficent society of the New England conservatory of Music, 1884-1900. She became a member of the Massachusetts Ladies' Aid Society, of the Massachusetts Soldiers' Home, of the Massachusetts Woman's Indian association, of the Massachusetts Prison association and of the American Psychical society. She edited A Woman of the Century with Frances E. Willard (1893); and is the author of: The Children's Army (1848); A Mental Transformation (1850); Pen Pictures (1865); Thirty Years Too Late (1878); What Shall We Do with Our Daughters- (1883); My Story of the War (1888); Autobiography (1897); and many contributions to periodical literature.
LOGAN, John Alexander, statesman and soldier, was born in Murphysboro, Jackson county, Ill., Feb. 9, 1826; eldest son of Dr. John and Elizabeth (Jenkins) Logan. His father immigrated to the United States from Ireland in 1823,' and settled in Cape Girardeau, Mo., removing later to Jackson county, Ill., where He conducted a farm, practised his profession, was a representative in the state legislature and held several county offices. John A. Logan acquired his preparatory education chiefly under the instruction of Iris father and his tutor, and be attended Shiloh college in 1840. Upon the outbreak of the war with Mexico in 1846, he enlisted in the volunteer army and was appointed 2d lieutenant, 1st Illinois volunteers, and served as adjutant and quartermaster of the regiment in New Mexico. He returned to Illinois at the close of the war, studied law with his uncle, Alexander M. Jenkins, and in 1849 was elected clerk of Jackson county. He was graduated from the law department of Louisville university in 1851; was admitted to the bar in 1852; was a representative in the state legislature, 1852-53, 1856-57; prosecuting attorney of the third judicial district of Illinois, 1853-59; presidential elector on the Buchanan and Breckinridge ticket in 1856, and a Democratic representative in the 36th and 37th congresses, 1859-61. In July, 1861, during the extra session of the 37th congress he resigned his seat and joined the Federal army at Bull Run, fighting as a private in Colonel Richardson's regiment. He returned to Marion, Ill., where he organized and was made colonel of the 31st Illinois infantry. He commanded his regiment in McClernand's brigade in the battle of Belmont, where he led a bayonet charge and had a horse shot under him; also in the attack on Fort Henry, and at Fort Donelson, where he was severely wounded in the left shoulder. He joined General Grant at Pittsburg Landing, March 5, 1862, and was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers. He commanded a brigade at Jackson, Tenn., where he guarded the railroad lines with six regiments. In 1862 he declined the nomination for representative in the 38th congress. He commanded the 3d division, 17th army Corps, under General McPherson in Grant's northern Mississippi campaign; was promoted major-general, Nov. 26, 1862, and fought at Port Gibson, Raymond, Jackson, Champion Hill and at the siege of Vicksburg, where he was in command of McPherson's centre, his command entering Vicksburg immediately after the explosion of the mine. He was made the first military governor of Vicksburg, and for his gallantry during the siege he received from congress a medal of honor which bore the inscription "Vicksburg, July 4, 1863." He succeeded General Sherman in November, 1863, as the commander of the 15th army corps. He led the advance of the Army of the Tennessee at Resaca; and repulsed Hardee at Dallas, Where he was shot through the left arm. He temporarily succeeded General McPherson in command of the Army of the Tennessee upon the latter's death, July 22, 1864, and led his corps in the battle of Kenesaw Mountain and in the attack on Atlanta. After taking part in the presidential campaign of 1864. He rejoined Sherman at Savannah and continued in command of his corps until the surrender of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, April 26, 1865, when he succeeded General Howard as commander of the Army of the Tennessee, he resigned his commission in the army, and returned to his home at Marion, Ill., in August, 1865. He was a Republican representative in the 40th and 41st congresses, 1867-71, and was one of the managers of the impeachment trial of President Johnson. He was U.S. senator from Illinois, 1871-77, and 1879-86. He was a candidate for nomination for the Presidency June 3, 1884, and upon the nomination of James G. Blaine was chosen Republican candidate for Vice-President by acclamation. He was commander-in-chief of the Grand Amy of the Republic and it was on his proposal that May 30th was designated as Decoration Day and made a national holiday. He was married Nov. 27. 1855, to Mary Simmerson, daughter of Capt. John M. Cunningham, register of the land office at Shawneetown, Ill., who survived him. They had three children: the eldest, a son, died in infancy; the second, a daughter, married Maj. W. F. Tucker, U.S.A.; and the youngest, John A. Logan, Jr., was a major in the U.S. volunteer service in the war with Spain, served in Cuba as an adjutant-general on Gen. J. C. Bates's staff; was appointed major of the 33d U.S. volunteers August, 1899, and was killed while leading a charge at San Jacinto, Luzon, Philippine Islands, Nov. 11, 1899. General Logan is the author of: The Great Conspiracy (1886); The Volunteer Soldier of America (1887). An equestrian statue in bronze, on a bronze pedestal with bas relief portraits of the general officers serving with him, and scenes in the senate when he took the oath of office, and on battlefields in which he engaged, was unveiled in Washington, D.C., April 10, 1901. He died in Washington, D.C., Dec. 26, 1886.
LOGAN, Stephen Trigg, jurist, was born in Frankfort, Ky., Feb. 24, 1800; son of David and Mary (Trigg) Logan; grandson of Col. John and Jane (McClure) Logan, and of Col. Stephen and --- Christian) Trigg and a descendant of David Logan, an Irishman who settled in Pennsylvania and subsequently removed to Augusta county, Va. He attended school in Frankfort, Ky., studied law under Judge Christopher Tompkins at Glasgow, Ky., in 1817 and was admitted to the bar. He was married in 1823 to America J., daughter of William Bush of Glasgow, Ky., and secondly to a sister of Justice John McKinley of the U.S. supreme court. He served as attorney for the commonwealth and practised in Barren county, 1821-31. He lost his property, accumulated by his practice, through security debts, and in 1832 engaged in law practice at Springfield, Ill. He was judge of the Sangamon circuit district, 1835-37; was elected a second time but declined to serve; practised law with E. D. Baker, 1837-41, and with Abraham Lincoln, 1841-44, and later with his son-in-law Milton Hay. He was a representative in the Illinois legislature, 1842-40 and 1854-56 and was a delegate to the state constitutional convention of 1847. He was a defeated candidate for representative in congress in 1848, owing to his opposition to the war with Mexico. He was a delegate for the state at large to the Republican national convention in 1860, and a commissioner to the national peace convention of 1861, at Washington, where he urged an honorable compromise. A memorial of his life and character was issued from the Springfield press in 1880. He died in Springfield, Ill., July 17, 1880.
LOVEJOY, Owen, representative, was born in Albion, Maine, Jan. 6, 1811; son of the Rev. Daniel and Elizabeth (Pattee) Lovejoy. He worked on his father's farm, where he earned sufficient money to pay his way through college, and entered Bowdoin with the class of 1834. He left before graduating to study for orders in the Protestant Episcopal church, but on being required to refrain from taking sides on the question of slavery, he removed to Alton, Ill., in 1836, and was present when his brother Elijah was killed by the mob Nov. 7, 1837. He joined the Congregational church, studied for that ministry, and was pastor of the church at Princeton, Ill., 1838-54. He defied the laws of the state by holding anti-slavery meetings in all parts of Illinois, making his home in Princeton one of the principal stations of the "underground railroad." His course led to his arrest many times and to his paying innumerable fines. He was elected a representative in the state legislature in 1854, and succeeded in obtaining a repeal of the obnoxious law. He was a delegate to the national liberty convention at Buffalo in November, 1847, and in the state legislature supported the nomination of Abraham Lincoln for U.S. senator. He was a representative from the third district of Illinois in the 35th, 36th, 37th and 38th congresses, 1857-64, and died in office. While in congress he was chairman of the committee on agriculture and the District of Columbia. He took part in all the great debates on the slavery question in congress, and was a speaker in the political campaigns which followed the organization of the Republican party. He prepared with his brother, Joseph Cammet, A Memoir of the Life of Elijah Parish Lovejoy (1838). He died in Brooklyn, N.Y., March 25, 1864.
LUNDY, Benjamin, abolitionist, was born at Hardwick, N.J., Jan. 4, 1789; son of Joseph and Elizabeth (Shotwell) Lundy; grandson of Thomas and Joanna (Doan) Lundy and of Benjamin and Anne (Hallett) Shotwell, and a descendant of Richard Lundy, a Quaker, who came from Devonshire, England, and settled in Bucks county, Pa., in 1685. He was a saddler at Wheeling, Va., 1808-12; removed to St. Clairsville, Ohio, in 1812, and in 1815, he organized the first anti-slavery association in the United States, called the Union Humane society. He contributed articles on slavery to the Philanthropist, and joined Charles Osborne at Mt. Pleasant, Ohio, in the publication of that paper. At that time he decided to sell his property, dispose of his trade and devote his energies to the cause of anti-slavery. He went to St. Louis, Mo., in 1819, and while there agitated the slave question in the Missouri and Illinois papers. On his return to Mt. Pleasant in 1821, he established The Genius of Universal Emancipation, and in 1822 removed the journal to Jonesboro, Tenn., travelling the five hundred miles on foot. There he issued a weekly newspaper and an agricultural monthly besides his own paper, and he transferred the journal to Baltimore, Md., in 1824. He had agents in the slave states and between 1820-30 visited nineteen states of the Union, and held more than two hundred public anti-slavery meetings. He visited Hayti in 1826 and 1829, Canada in 1830, and Texas in 1830 and 1833, for the purpose of forming settlements for emancipated and fugitive slaves, but the events preceding the annexation of Texas interfered with his plans for the establishment of colonies under the anti-slavery laws of Mexico. In September, 1829, he invited William Lloyd Garrison to Baltimore, where together they printed The Genius of Emancipation, until March, 1830, when the partnership was dissolved. During Garrison's imprisonment Lundy was fined repeatedly and heavily, and was also imprisoned. Being obliged to leave Maryland by order of the court at Baltimore, he removed his paper to Washington in October, 1830, and he printed it there until 1834, when he removed it to Philadelphia, and changed its name to the National Inquirer. It was subsequently merged into the Pennsylvania Freeman, and his office was destroyed in the burning of Pennsylvania Hall, which was fired by the mob in May, 1838. He then removed to Lowell, La Salle county, Ill., and printed his paper under its old name, The Genius of Emancipation, for a few months. He married a Miss Lewis, and had five children. He died at Lowell, Ill., Oct. 22, 1839.
LYONS, Samuel Ross, educator, was born in Winnsboro, S.C., April 28, 1849; son of George and Priscilla (Gibson) Lyons, grandson of James and -- (Elliott) Lyons. He served in the 154th Illinois volunteers in 1865; subsequently entered Monmouth college, Ill., and was graduated from there A.B. in 1877. He studied theology at Xenia, Ohio; was ordained to the United Presbyterian ministry in 1880; was pastor at Marissa, Ill., 1885-85; and at Bloomington, Ind., 1885-98. In 1892 he was elected a trustee of Indiana university and in 1898 became president of Monmouth college. He was married in 1891 to Alethia, daughter of Andrew S. Cooper; she died in Monmouth, Ill., April 10, 1901. Erskine and Westminster colleges conferred upon him the honorary degree of D.D. in 1898.
McARTHUR, John, soldier, was born in Erskine, Scotland, Nov. 17, 1826; son of John and Isabella (Neilson) McArthur. He attended the public schools and worked in his father's blacksmith shop until 1849. He was married in 1848 to Christina Cuthbertson, of Erskine, Scotland; immigrated to the United States in 1849 and obtained employment in Chicago, Ill., in 1849 as a boiler-maker and subsequently established a business of his own. He was captain of the "Highland Guards" attached to the state militia, and in 1861 they volunteered and reported at Springfield, where he was elected and commissioned colonel of the 12th Illinois volunteers. He commanded the 1st brigade, 2d division of the army under Gen. U. S. Grant, at the assault on Fort Donelson, Feb. 14, 1862, and he was promoted brigadier-general, March 21, 1862. He commanded the 2d brigade, 2d division, Army of the Tennessee at the battle of Shiloh, April 6-7, 1862, where he was wounded. He commanded the 1st brigade, 6th division, Army of the Tennessee, at Corinth, Oct. 3-4, 1862, and the 6th division, 17th corps, Army of the Tennessee, during the Vicksburg campaign, May 1 to July 4, 1863. He was in command of the 1st division of A. J. Smith's detachment of the Army of the Tennessee in the battle of Nashville, Dec. 15-16, 1864, and on Dec. 16, impatient at the delay in the attack, McArthur received Smith's silent approval to charge the hill in front of General Couch's command, which that commander had been refused the privilege of charging, and withdrawing McMillen's brigade from the trenches, he marched it by flank in front of Couch's position and charged the hill with fixed bayonets. The hill was capped by a redoubt manned by Bate's division and mounted with Whitworth's guns, and in the face of tremendous fire McArthur, without firing a shot, gained the summit and planted the flag. His gallantry won for him the brevet of major-general. He was president of the board of commissioners of public works of Chicago during the fire of 1871; poetmaster of the city, 1873-77, and in in 1901 he was a retired manufacturer.
McCLERNAND, John Alexander, representative, was born near Hardinsburg, Ky., May 30, 1812, the only son of Dr. John and Fatima (Cummins) Seaton McClernand, and grandson of Alexander McClernand, of Antrim, Ireland. His father, a political exile, left Ireland in 1801, landed in Philadelphia Pa., and settled near Hardinsburg, Ky., from whence he removed in 1813 to Shawneetown, Ill., where he died in 1816. Johnwas brought up on a farm, studied law under Henry Eddy, 1829-32, and was admitted to the bar. In 1832 he volunteered for service in the Black Hawk war and engaged in trading on the Ohio and Mississippi river, 1833-34. He resumed his law practice and established the Democrat at Shawneetown, Ill., in 1835, and was a representative in the Illinois legislature, 1836-42, where he defended President Jackson against an attack by Governor Duncan. He was married in 1843 to Sarah, daughter of Colonel Dunlap, of Jacksonville, Ill. He was appointed by the legislature commissioner and treasurer of the Illinois and Michigan canal. He was a presidential elector on the Van Buren and Johnson ticket in 1840, and a Democratic representative from Illinois in the 28th, 29th, 30th, 31st, 36th and 37th congresses, 1843-51, and 1859-61. He resigned his seat in the 37th congress to enter the U.S. volunteer army, He raised a brigade made up of Illinois men with the aid of N. B. Buford, John A. Logan and Philip B. Fouke, and was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers by President Lincoln in 1861. At the battle of Belmont he commanded the 1st brigade of Grant's army, and at the capture of Fort Donelson the 1st division made up of Oglesby's, W. H. L. Wallace's and William R. Morrison's brigades. He was promoted major-general of volunteers, March 21, 1862. He commanded the 1st division, Army of the Tennessee, at the battle of Shiloh, April 6-7, 1862. In the Vicksburg campaign, May 1-July 4, 1863, he commanded the 13th army corps. He took part in the engagements at Port Gibson, April 30 to May 1, 1862; Champion Hills, May 16, 1863; and Black River Bridge, May 17, 1863, and at the siege of Vicksburg. He was charged by General Grant with not supporting the troops engaged in the battle of Champion Hills, and his action caused General Grant to countermand an order he had given General Hovey on the field, and McClernand was relieved of his command soon after the surrender of Vicksburg. He was reinstated by President Lincoln, Jan. 31, 1864, but resigned from the army on account of ill health, Nov. 30, 1864, and resumed the practice of law at Springfield, Ill., in 1865. He was circuit judge for the Sangamon district, 1870-73; chairman of the Democratic national convention at St. Louis, Mo., in 1876, and was appointed a member of the Utah commission by President Cleveland in 1886. He died in Springfield, Ill., Sept. 20, 1900.
McCOOK, Henry Christopher, clergyman, was born in New Lisbon, Ohio, July 3, 1837; third son of Dr. John and Catharine Julia (Sheldon) McCook. He attended the public schools of his native town and learned the printer's trade. He was graduated from Jefferson college, Pa., in 1859; taught school in New Lisbon, Salem and Steubenville, Ohio, 1859-60, and was graduated from the Western Theological seminary in 1863. He was married, Sept. 11, 1861, to Emma C., daughter of Dr. George and Anna (Crowe) Herter. He was licensed and ordained by the presbytery of Steubenville in 1861, and was a home missionary in Illinois and Missouri. He assisted in organizing the 41st Illinois volunteer regiment, in which he enlisted as 1st lieutenant in 1861, and served subsequently as chaplain. In 1862 he left the service and returned to Clinton, Ill., as pastor of the Presbyterian church. He served as city missionary in St. Louis, Mo., until 1869, when he became pastor of the Tabernacle Presbyterian church of Philadelphia. He was chaplain of the 2d regiment, Pennsylvania volunteer infantry, during the Spanish-American war, and served in Santiago de Cuba with the 5th army corps on special duty. He was the founder of the National Relief commission for the Spanish-American war. He was elected president of the American Society of Entomology; vice-president of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and president of the American Presbyterian Historical society. Lafayette college conferred upon him the honorary degree of D.D. in 1880, and that of Sc.D. in 1888. His published books include: Object and Outline Teaching (1870); Teacher's Commentary on the Last Year of Our Lord's Ministry (1871); The Lost Days of Jesus (1872); Historic Ecclesiastical Emblems of Pan-Presbyterianism (1880); The Women Friends of Jesus (1884); The Latimers, a Scotch-Irish Historical Romance of the Western Insurrection (1899); The Martial Graves of our Fallen Heroes in Santiago de Cuba (1899). He also edited the "Tercentenary Book" (1873). His most widely known works are those on Natural History of the Agricultural Ant of Texas (1880); The Mound-Making Ants of the Alleghanies (1877); Honey and Occident Ants (1882); Tenants of an Old Farm (1884); American Spiders and Their Spinning-Works (Vols. I., II., III., folio, 1888).
McCOOK, Latimer A., surgeon and soldier, was born at Canonsburg, Pa., April 26, 1820; eldest son of Maj. Daniel and Martha (Latimer) McCook. He was educated at Jefferson college, Canonsburg, studied medicine with his uncle, Dr. George McCook (q. v.), and received his degree from Jefferson Medical college of Philadelphia. He entered the army in 1861 as assistant surgeon, and was soon promoted surgeon of the 31st Illinois volunteers with the rank of major. He served throughout all the campaigns of the Army of the Tennessee, and while caring for the wounded of his regiment, during action, he was himself twice wounded; once in the trenches before Vicksburg, and again at Pocotaligo Bridge, S.C., in General Sherman's movement northward from Savannah, after the march to the sea. He survived the war, but was broken down in health and died from general debility, resulting from wounds and exposure incident to his service in the army, at his home, Pekin, Ill., Aug. 23, 1869.
McDOUGALL, James Alexander, senator, was born in Bethlehem, N.Y., Nov. 19, 1817. He attended the grammar school of Albany, studied law, and removed to Pike county, Ill., in 1837, where he was admitted to practice. He was attorney-general of Illinois, 1842-46; engaged in engineering, and originated and accompanied an exploring expedition through New Mexico and Arizona to California. He settled in San Francisco, where he practised law, was attorney-general of California, 1850-52; a representative in the state legislature for several terms, a Democratic representative in the 32d congress, 1851-53, and U.S. senator, 1861-67, where he served as chairman of the committee on the Pacific railroad. He was a delegate from California to the Democratic national convention at Chicago, Aug. 29, 1864. At the close of his senatorial term he retired to Albany, N.Y., where he died Sept. 3, 1867.
McKEE, George Colin, representative, was born in Joliet, Ill., Oct. 2, 1836 or 1837. He attended the academic department of Knox college and took a partial collegiate course at the Illinois Liberal institute, 1852-54. He was admitted to the bar in 1858, practised in Centralia, Ill., where he also held the office of city attorney, 1858-61. He enlisted in April, 1861, in the 11th Illinois infantry for three months, and upon the reorganization of the regiment for three years' service he became captain of a company. He was wounded at Fort Donelson, at Sbiloh and at Vicksburg. At Vicksburg, his regiment in Reed's brigade, McArthur's division, McPherson's corps, lost heavily, Lieut.-Col. Garrett Nevins, in command, being killed. In the Red River campaign He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers and enrolled and equipped the 1st brigade, corps d'Afrique, composed of the 1st, 3d, 12th and 22d colored infantry attached to Banks's army. At the close of the war he settled in Vicksburg, Miss., where he practised law, and engaged in planting in Madison county, Miss. He was a member of the Mississippi constitutional convention in 1867, was register in bankruptcy and was elected a representative to the 40th congress, 1867-69, but the state was refused representation, he was a representative from the fifth Mississippi district is the 41st, 42d and 43d congresses, serving from Feb. 23, 1870, to March 4, 1875. He subsequently removed to Jackson, Miss., where He practised law and was postmaster. He died in Jackson, Miss., Nov. 17, 1890.
McKEEGHAN, William Arthur, representative, was born in Cumberland county, N.J., Jan. 19, 1842. His parents removed to Fulton county, Ill., in 1848, where he lived on a farm and attended the public schools. He served throughout the civil war in the 11th Illinois cavalry regiment, and in 1865 settled in Pontiac, Ill., where he engaged in agriculture. He was one of the organizers of the Farmers' Association and was elected vice-president for the eighth congressional district. He removed to Nebraska in 1880, and settled on a farm near Red Cloud. He was county judge of Webster county, 1885-86; was the unsuccessful candidate for representative in the 50th congress in 1886, being defeated by James Laud, Republican, and was a Democratic representative in the 52d and 53d congresses, 1891-95.
McLAREN, William Edward, third bishop of Chicago and 114th in succession in the American episoopate, was born in Geneva, N.Y., Dec. 13, 1831; son of the Rev. Dr. John Finlay (q.v.) and Mary (McKay) McLaren. He was graduated from Jefferson college, Canonsburg, Pa., in 1851, taught school, 1851-52, and engaged in journalistic work in Cleveland, Ohio, and Pittsburg, Pa., 1852-57. He was graduated from the Western Theological seminary, Allegheny, Pa., B.D., in 1860, and was ordained the same year by the presbytery of Allegheny City and engaged in missionary work in New Granada, 1860-63. He was pastor of the Second church, Peoria, Ill., 1863-67, and of Westminster church, Detroit, Mich., 1867-72. He was ordered deacon in the Protestant Episcopal Church, in St. John's church, Detroit, Mich., July 29, 1872, and ordained priest in the same church, Oct. 20, 1872, by Bishop McCoskry. He was rector of Trinity church, Cleveland, Ohio, 1872-75; and was elected bishop of Illinois in September, 1875, succeeding Bishop Whirshouse. He was consecrated in the cathedral church of St. Peter and Paul, Chicago, Ill., by Bishops McCcekry, Bedell, Whipple, J. C. Talbot, Clarkson, Spalding, Gillaspie and Welles, Dec. 8, 1875. The diocese of Illinois was divided in 1877, and two new secs, Quincy and Springfield, created. Bishop McLaren continued as bishop of Illinois, which embraced the northern section of the state, the name of which in 1883 was changed to the diocese of Chicago. He founded the Western Theological seminary in Chicago in 1881, with an endowment of $325,000, and Waterman Hall for girls at Sycamore, Ill., in 1885, with an endowment of $200,000. He called together the first diocesan retreat for clergy held in the American church, served as primus of the provincial synod of Illinois, 1878-1901, and became president of the board of trustees of St. Mary's school, Knoxville, Ill., and of the institutions of his own founding. He was appointed by the presiding bishop in 1898 to investigate the field in Porto Rico with a view to the promotion of church work in the newly acquired colony. He received the honorary degree of D.D. from Racine in 1873 and D.C.L. from the University of the South in 1884. He is the author of: Catholic Dogma, the Antidote of Doubt (1883); Inner Proofs of God (1884); Analysis of Pantheism (1885); The Practics of the Interior Life (1897); The Holy Priest (1899); The Essence of Prayer (1901), and poems, addresses and occasional sermons.
McLEAN, John, senator, was born in North Carolina in 1791. He received a limited education in the schools of Logan county, Ky., where he had removed with his father in 1795. He was admitted to the bar and practised in Shawneetown, Ill., 1815-30. He was the first representative from Illinois elected to congress and served in the 15th congress, 1817-19. He was a representative in the state legislature in 1820 and upon the resignation of Vivian Edwards from the U.S. senate in 1824, he was appointed by Governor Morrow to fill the vacancy and served, 1824-25. He was elected in 1829 U. S. senator for a full term to expire March 3, 1835; by the unanimous vote of the legislature, and took his seat Dee. 7, 1829. He died in Shawneetown, Ill., Oct. 4, 1830.
McMURRY, Charles Alexander, educator, was born at Crawfordsville, Ind., Feb. 18, 1857; son of Franklyn M. and Charlotte (Underwood) McMurry, and grandson of James McMurry and of John Underwood. Both grandparents came from Kentucky into central Indiana between 1830 and 1840, and his parents removed to Bloomington, Ill., in 1865. He was graduated from the Illinois State Normal university in 1876; studied two years at Michigan university between 1876 and 1880; taught school three years in Illinois, four years in Pueblo and Denver, Col., and three years at Winona, Minn., Normal school. He studied four years at the Universities of Halle and Jena in Germany, between 1882 and 1888, and received the degree of Ph.D. from Halle in 1887. He was teacher in the practice department of the Illinois State Normal university, 1892-99; super-intendant of the Practice School of the Northern Illinois Normal school at De Kalb, 1899-1901; teacher in the summer school of the University of Minnesota, three years; teacher in the summer quarter and in the Teacher's college at Chicago university four years, and in the summer session of Columbia university, N.Y., one year. He is the author of: General Method (1892); Method of the Recitation (1896); Special Method in Reading, in Literature and History, in Geography, in Science (1893-95); Pioneer History Stories (1893); Course of Study in the Eight Grades (1895); Method of the Recitation (with Frank M. McMurry, 1897). He was editor of the Year Books of the National Herbart society, 1895-1900.
McNAMARA, John, educator, was born in Dromore, county Down, Ireland, Dec. 27, 1824. He was brought by his parents to the United States about 1830. When a young lad he came under the notice of the Rev. William Augustus Muhlenberg, D.D., who took him into his own home and regarded him as a son. He was educated at St. Paul's college, Flushing, L.I., and matriculated at the General Theological seminary in New York city in the class of 1850, but did not graduate. He was admitted to the diaconate and was assistant to Dr. Muhlenberg at the Church of the Holy Communion, 1848-49, and was ordained priest in June, 1849. He was married, Nov. 18, 1852, to Sarah, daughter of Edward and Caroline (Lawrence) Gould of New York city. He chose a missionary life and in response to an appeal by Bishop Kemper he went west and labored successfully in Missouri, Kansas, Wisconsin and Illinois. He founded Christ church, St. Joseph, Mo.; the Church of the Holy Communion, Lake Geneva, Wis., and Christ church, Waukegan, Ill., and organized mission stations. He was in Kenosha at the outbreak of the civil war, and was made chaplain of the 1st Wisconsin regiment, serving for three years, when he returned to his parish. He was rector of parishes in White Water and La Crosse, and while at the latter place was called in August, 1870, by Bishop Clarkson, to take the presidency of Nebraska college at Nebraska city, a church institution, which position he held, 1870-75. In 1875 he returned to New York at the request of Dr. Muhlenberg and was assistant at St. Luke's hospital and rector at St. Johnsland, L.I., N.Y., until shortly after Dr. Muhlenberg's death when he returned to Nebraska (1878) and with the exception of a few months in New Mexico, [p.198] he spent the remainder of his life in the state. He served as delegate to the general convention several times. At the time of his death he was rector of the Church of our Saviour, North Platte, and he was buried at Lake Geneva. His widow became Sister Sarah of the order of St. Monica, Springfield, Ill. He received the honorary degee of D.D. from Nebraska college in 1869. He is the author of: Three Years on the Kansas Border (1852); The Black Code of Kansas (1857), and contributions to church periodicals. He died in North Platte, Neb., Oct. 24, 1885.
McNUTT, Patterson, educator, was born in Switzerland county, Ind., Aug. 27, 1833. He was graduated from the Indiana Asbury (now De Pauw) university, A.B., 1855, A.M., 1858. He was married, Nov. 27, 1855, to Louisa S. Slavens. He was principal of Danville seminary, 1855-58; joined the Illinois conference in 1858; was a professor in the Illinois Wesleyan university, 1858-59, and principal of the Georgetown seminary, 1859-62. He joined the army as captain of the 73rd Illinois volunteers, serving 1862-64. He was president of Marshall college, Ill., 1864-68; president of Baker university, 1869-70; and professor of mathematics, Indiana Asbury university, 1872-83. He was transferred to the St. Louis conference and held pastorates at Warrensburg, Mo., 1883-85, and at Del Norte, Col,, 1885-86. The degree of D.D. was conferred on him by the Illinois Wesleyan university in 1880. He died at DeI Notre, Col., Feb. 9, 1886.
McROBERTS, Samuel, senator, was born in Monroe county, Ill., April 12, 1799; son of James McRoberts, a farmer. He received a good English education from a private tutor and in 1819 was appointed clerk of the circuit court of Monroe county. He entered the law department of Transylvania university, at Lexington, Ky., in 1821, and after attending three full courses of lectures he was admitted to the bar, and settled in practice at Danville, Ill. He was elected by the Illinois legislature one of the five circuit judges of the state in 1824; was elected as a Democrat to the state senate in 1828; was U.S. district attorney for Illinois, 1830-42; receiver of the public moneys at the Danville land office, 1832-39; and solicitor of the general land office at Washington, Ill., 1839-41. He was elected to the U.S. senate, Dec. 16, 1840, for the term expiring March 3, 1847, and took his seat, May 31, 1841. He died at Cincinnati, Ohio, on his way home from Washington, D.C., March 27, 1843.
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