A Gazetteer of Illinois; in Three Parts
BY J. M. Peck
Mackinau, (Michilimacinac) a navigable stream in Tazewell county. It rises in the prairie near the centre of Mc Lean county, and after receiving several small branches, runs southwestwardly through Tazewell county, and enters the Illinois three miles below Pekin. It is a clear stream, and has Little Mackinau, Rock, Walnut, and Panther creeks for its branches. The Mackinau bottomsare rich, but its bluffs are very broken, thin soil, from one to two miles in width, and the timber chiefly white oak, and some cedar. The prairies adjoining are rolling, dry, and tolerably good. Towards its head the land is less broken, timber various, and soil rich. It has a number of mill seats.
Mackinau, a small village, and formerly the county seat of Tazewell. It is situated on the Mackinan creek, in twenty-four north, two west, sixteen miles north of east from Pekin, surrounded with a large settlement. It is located in the prairie, on the southeast side of Mackinau.
Macon County Prairie, an extensive tract, from twelve to twenty miles in width, lying north of Decatur, and betwixt the North fork of the Sangamon and Salt creek. Some parts are level and wet—other portions dry and undulating.
Macoupin Creek, a considerable stream that rises in the north part of Macon county; runs southwesterly, passes through Greene county, and enters the Illinois river twenty-six miles above its junction with the Mississippi, in section twenty-four, eight north, fourteen west of the third principal meridian. Its branches are Phill's, Dry fork, Bear, and Hodge's creeks, and Lake fork. The country along its banks is generally fertile, suitably proportioned into timber and prairie, and has a line of settlements through Macoupin and Greene counties.
Macoupin is aboriginal, and in all the French authors, spelled Ma-qua-pin, but it has become legalised on the statute books of the state in the uncouth form given at the head of this article, and usually pronounced by the people, Ma-goo-pin. This word is said to be the Indian name of a vegetable with a large round leaf, growing in the lakes and ponds of Illinois, called by some people "splatter-dock," and found plentifully near this stream. The large roots of this plant, if eaten raw, are very deleterious. The Indians, in early times, dug holes in the earth, which they walled with stone, and after heating them with large fires, put in the roots, covered them with earth, and in two days the rank poisonous taste was gone. They were then put on poles and dried for food. In this form they were eaten by the natives.* [* See Charlevoix's Voyage to North America, 1721.]
Macoupin Prairie, a large prairie in Greene county, between the Piasau and Macoupin, moderately undulating, rich, and rapidly settling. The road from Alton to Carrollton passes through this prairie. Towards the Illinois river, on the west, and the Macoupin creek on the east, are extensive bodies of fine timber. Emigrants from Vermont, and other northern and eastern states, are covering over this part of the county with fine farms. The settlement in the south part of this prairie is sometimes called South Greene.
Macoupin Settlement lies near the timber bordering upon the Macoupin creek and prairie, in Greene county, nine miles south of Carrollton. This settlement was commenced in December, 1816, by Daniel Allen, and John and Paul Harriford, and was then the most northern white settlement in the Illinois Territory. The prairie land is rich, but rather level, and the timber adjoining good. Kane post office is in this settlement.
Macoupin Point, a noted stand at the junction of the roads from Edwardsville to Springfield, and from Hillsboro' to Morgan county and Beardstown, sometimes called Henderson's stand. It is in the northwest corner of Montgomery county, at the head of trie timber, on the South fork of the Macoupin. South, along the roads to Edwardsville and Hillsboro', the surface of the prairie is flat and wet. North, towards Sugar creek, it is dry and undulating.
Maddux Settlement is in Clinton county, near the mouth of Crooked creek, eight miles south of Carlyle.
Manchester, a post town in Morgan county, on section twenty-eight, thirteen north, eleven west of the third principal meridian. It is on the main road leading from Carrollton to Jacksonville, eighteen miles from each place on the north side of Mark's prairie, and surrounded with a body of excellent timbered and prairie land.
Mantua, a large settlement in a timbered tract, in the southwestern part of White county, ten miles from Carmi. Duncanton is the post office.
Marais d'Ogee (Ma-re-do-she) is a sluggish stream, and a series of swamps, extending from Rock river to the Mississippi, and constituting the present boundary between the counties of Rock Island and Whiteside. It is about twenty miles long, and in some places one mile, and in other places twenty or thirty yards wide. Near the Mississippi, where the road crosses, it is a clear stream of water, twenty yards wide, and sandy bottom. It is supposed that a canal might be cut, at very little expense, through this swamp into Rock river.
Marchant's Settlement, on the north side of Fulton county, twenty-four miles east of north from Lewistown.
Marine Settlement, a flourishing settlement in Madison county, between the east and west forks of Silver creek, and twelve miles east of Edwardsvstle. This settlement, was commenced by Captains Blakeman and Allen, in 1819. The settlement is large, and spread over an undulating, rich, and beautiful prairie, and is healthy and well watered. A post office.
Markham's Settlement, in Macoupin,county, on Taylor's creek, twelve or fifteen miles west of Garlinville. The land is good, surface undulating, and equally divided into timber and prairie.
Marrow Bone, a small creek in the north part of Shelby county. It rises in Macon county, runs southeast through Bone's settlement, into the west fork of the Kaskaskia.
Marseilles, a projected manufacturing town, on the north side of the Illinois river, at the Grand rapids, eight miles above Ottawa. A chartered company are engaged in constructing dams, mills, &c. Flour and lumber are made here, and the water power is immense and easily commanded. A post office has been established here. The canal will pass through it, and it already assumes the aspect of a bustling, enterprising village.
Marshall, a town site in Clark county, on the national road, on sections thirteen and twenty-four, township eleven north, twelve west. It is a pleasant, healthy situation, and bids fair to become a place of some importance.
Marshall's Prairie, north of Cox's prairie, fourteen miles northeast of Brownsville, in Jackson county, is rich, undulating land, and the settlement contains a dozen families.
Martin's Creek and Settlement, in Wayne county, on Elm river, five miles north of Fairfield. The settlement consists of fifty or sixty families, and the creek is a branch of Elm river.
Martinsville, a town site and post office on the national road, in Clark county.
Mason, a small stream that enters the Illinois river from the south, twelve miles below the junction of the Kankakee with the Des Plaines. It is called also Nettle creek.
Mason Grove, in La Salle county, lies eighteen miles northeasterly from Ottawa. It lies on the Little Mason, is five miles long, and one mile wide, a tract of excellent land. It is called also Virginia Grove.
Mason's Prairie and settlement is in the southwestern part of Lawrence county, from twenty to twenty-five miles from Lawrenceville, with seventy or eighty families.
Mauvaiseterre, a stream in Morgan county, that rises in the prairie on the borders of Sangamon county, in several branches, runs a west course near Jacksonville, and flows into the Illinois river two miles below Naples. Above Jacksonville, it is divided into North, South, and Brier or Middle forks. For beauty of situation, fertility of soil, salubrity of climate, a due proportion of timber and prairie, good water, and almost every other advantage for agricultural purposes, no country in the wide spread valley of the west exceeds this, and yet by a most singular misnomer, the French, who explored the Illinois river, called it "Mauvaise terre"—poor land.
MAYSVILLE, the seat of justice for Clay county, is situated on the borders of the Twelve Mile prairie, and near the Little Wabash river, on the stage road to Vincennes. It has three taverns, three stores, and about twenty families. The adjacent prairie is undulating, and second rate.
McAdam's Settlement is in Bond county, four miles south of Greenville; the land level, and tolerably good, and the settlement large.
MACOMB, the seat of justice of McDonough county, is situated on elevated ground, in a delightful prairie, between Drowning fork and Town fork, near the centre of the county. It is on the southwest quarter of section thirty-one, six north, two west, and was laid off in 1831. In 1832 it contained three stores, one grocery, about twenty families, and promises soon to become a pleasant inland village, with a considerable population around it.
McCord's Settlement, in Bond county, on the east side of the west fork of Shoal creek, eight miles northwest of Greenville. The land is good, and there is a due proportion of timber and prairie.
McCormack's Settlement, lies towards the southwestern part of Pope county.
McCreery's Settlement, in Franklin county, ten miles east of Frankfort, in a timbered tract of country. The timber consists of oaks of different kinds, hickory, some poplar and other varieties. The soil is good, rather undulating, and the settlement large.
McEaver's Settlement is six miles, southeast of Carlyle, in Clinton county, on the waters of Crooked creek.
McFatridge's Settlement, in Johnson county, eight miles northeast from Vienna, on the old road from Golconda to Kaskaskia, and on the waters of Cedar creek. The surface is rather broken, the soil thin, and the settlement contains sixty or seventy families.
McHenry, a town site in McHenry county, twelve miles south of the state boundary, and on the west side of Fox river. Surrounded with excellent prairie, and timber in groves and bur oak openings or barrens.
McKee's Creek, in the military tract, enters the Illinois river, in the northeast part of Pike county, in township three south, in range two west of the fourth principal meridian. It is made up of three principal branches, known by the names of North, Middle, and West forks. North Fork, which is the longest branch, rises in Adams county, near the base line, in range five west, runs a devious course into Schuyler county, and receives a number of small tributaries. Its general course to the Illinois river is southeast. Middle Fork originates near the boundary of Pike and Schuyler counties, and enters the west fork a few miles above its junction with the main stream. West Fork rises in the northern part of Pike county, where it interlocks with the waters that fall into the Mississippi, and after running an eastern course, joins the main stream a few miles above its mouth. The land on McKee's creek and branches is excellent, suitably proportioned into timber and prairie, which is gently undulating and rich. The settlements already are large, and population is increasing from emigration. The same obstruction to rapid settlement exists here as in all portions of the military tract. Much good land is held by non residents. Gould the land all be had at a reasonable price, this tract of country would soon be overspread with large farms.
McKee's Branch, a fork of Sugar creek, in Schuyler county, is a mill stream, three miles north of Rushville.
MCLEANSBORO', the county seat of Hamilton county, situated on high ground, in township five south, and in range seven east from the third principal meridian. The settlement around is pretty extensive and the town contains twenty or twenty-five families, and five stores.
McRaney's Creek is a small stream that heads in Adams county, passes into Pike and enters the Snycartee slough. The land is proportionably divided into timber and prairie, and of a good quality.
Meacham's Grove, now called Salem, is in Cook county, near the head of Salt creek, and contains about three sections of timher, of sugar maple, walnut, oaks, linden, ash, elm, hickory, &c. The prairie is undulating and rich. Around that and other small groves are about twenty-five families.
Mechanicsburg, a town site in the prairie near Clear creek, fifteen miles east of Springfield, on the road to Decatur. Post office Clear creek.
Melrose, a town site and post office, situated in Clark county, twelve miles southwest from Darwin. It has eighteen or twenty families.
Menomone, a stream in the northwest corner of the state. It rises in Iowa county, Wisconsin territory, runs southwest, and empties into the Mississippi, three miles below the boundary line. The surface near its mouth is broken, and towards its head are rich prairies, and rich mines of lead. The timber is scarce, in groves and patches for six or eight miles up. Length about fifteen or twenty miles.
Meredosia, a town site, landing, and place of considerable business on the Illinois river in Morgan county, six miles above Naples. It is situated on an elevated sand ridge, with a good landing when the water is not too low. Here are two steam mills, several stores, and fifty families: and to be a point in the Northern cross rail road from Quincy by Springfield, to Indiana. Meredosia can be approached from the bluffs and table land, without crossing any lakes or sloughs, which is not the case with other towns on the river in Morgan county. Much of the mercantile business of Jacksonville passes through this place. Above the town is a singular bayou, from whence its name, which, in French orthography, would be, Marais d' Ogee. Exports for pork, lard, flour, beef, corn, whiskey, butter and potatoes, $ 200,000. Imports in various kinds of merchandise landed at Meredosia, $ 450,000.
Meredosia Bay, is a body of water connected with the Illinois river, above Meredosia. It is seven miles long; its width varies from one-half to one mile.
Middle Fork of Big Muddy River, one of the four heads of Big Muddy river, in Franklin county. It rises on the borders of Hamilton county, runs a southwestern course, and enters the main stream a few miles west of Frankfort. The country along its borders is divided into timber and prairie; the surface tolerably level, and the soil good second rate.
Middle Fork Settlement, in Jefferson county, lies between Mount Vernon and Long prairie; a timbered tract, good sugar tree groves, and a pleasant settlement.
Middle Fork of Shoal Creek rises in the prairies of Montgomery county, eight north, four west, passes Hillsboro', and enters Shoal creek about four miles above Bond county line.
Middle Fork of Silver Creek rises in the prairies northeast of the Marine settlement, in Madison county, runs south and enters the East fork.
Middle Grove, a post office and settlement on the north side of Fulton county, on section six, township eight north, four west and on the road from Canton to Knoxville.
Middleton's Ferry, on the Kaskaskia river, twenty miles east of Belleville, and fourteen miles southeasterly from Lebanon.
Middletown, in Sangamon county, is laid off in the prairie, between the timber of Salt creek and Irish grove, near Mustek's station. Several families, &c.
Mier's Settlement is in Bond county, on the west side of Beaver creek, and two miles south of Greenville.
Milan, a post office and town site in the south part of Calhoun county, fractional section twenty-eight, township thirteen south, one west.
Mill Creek, a small stream that rises in the southwestern part of Edgar county, runs diagonally through Clark, and enters the Wabash, near York.
Mill Creek, a small mill stream in Randolph county. It enters the Kaskaskia river on the east side, one mile above the town of Kaskaskia.
Miller's Settlement adjoins the Mississippi, on the west side of Alexander county. Here is some bottom, and rolling upland, generally good. Population about thirty families.
Miller's Settlement, near the centre of Mercer county. A good tract of country.
Miller's Settlement, in Macon county, four miles west of Decatur, in the south side of Macon county prairie. Soil rich with good timber adjoining.
Milk's Prairie, in Edwards county, eleven miles northeast from Albion, four miles long, and two and a half wide—a fine and well settled tract.
Milton was once a town site, situated on Wood river, in Madison county, two miles southeast of Alton.
Mitchell's Settlement, in St. Clair county, six miles east of Belleville—a fine tract of country. Monk Hill is situated on the American bottom, in the borders of Madison county, eight miles northeasterly from St. Louis. The circumference, at the base, is about six hundred yards, and its height about ninety feet. On the south side, about halfway down, is a broad step, or apron, about fifteen feet wide. This hill, or mount, was the residence, for several years, of the monks of the order of La Trappe, the most rigid and. austere of all the monkish orders. Their monastery was originally situated in the district of Perche, in France, in one of the most lonely spots that could be chosen. They fled from the commotions of that kingdom to America, lived for a time in Kentucky, and came to Illinois in 1806 or '07, and settled on this mound. They cultivated a garden, repaired watches, and traded with the people, but were generally filthy in their habits, and extremely severe in their penances and discipline. In 1813, they sold off their personal property, and left the country, for France.
MONMOUTH, the seat of justice for Warren county, is in the prairie, and, on the south side of the timber of Henderson river. It is located on section twenty-nine, eleven north, two west has a flourishing settlement, and a first rate tract of country around it. It has four stores, two groceries, one tavern, two physicians, no lawyers, and about twenty families.
Montebello is a town site, post office and settlement in Hancock county, on the bluffs of the Mississippi, one and a half miles above the foot of the Lower rapids. There is a considerable settlement along the river, the whole length of the rapids.
Montecello, the site of the Alton Female Seminary, a delightfnl situation on the borders of Scamet's prairie, four and a half miles north of Alton.
Montezuma, a town site, post office, and landing on the right bank of the Illinois river in Pike county, thirteen miles southwest from Pittsfield.
Montgomery, a town site in Adams county, in section twenty-seven, township two south, six west, with four families.
Moore's Prairie, in Jefferson county, is eight miles long, from two to three miles wide, and from six to twelve miles southeast of Mount Vernon. A post office. Some portions are flat and wet, other parts dry and gently undulating, and the settlement along its borders consists of seventy-five families.
Moore's Prairie, in St. Clair county, is five miles east of Belleville, and about the same in extent. It is tolerably level, of good soil, and spread over with fine farms.
Moore's Settlement, in Monroe county, near Waterloo, is an extensive settlement.
Morgan's Creek, in Kane county, rises in Ausauble grove, runs west, and enters Fox river, one mile above the south boundary of Kane county.
Moss's Settlement, in Pope county, near the heads of Big Bay and Lusk's creeks; twenty miles from Golconda. It is a good tract of country.
Mounse's Creek, a small stream, and branch of the North fork of Sangamon, in Foster's settlement, Macon county.
Mount Carbon, a coal bank on Muddy river, four miles above Brownswille, in Jackson county. Large quantities are exported from this place down the river. Here is a large steam saw and grist mill.
MOUNT CARMEL, the seat of justice for Wabash county, is situated on high ground, on the Wabash river, and on section twenty, in fractional township one south, and in range twelve west from the second principal meridian. This town was laid off in 1818, by Rev. Thomas S. Hinde, of Ohio, on the project of establishing a moral, temperate, and industrious village. The prospective improvement of the rapids of the Wabash near this place, is thought to give it peculiar importance as a place of business. The country around is high, undulating, healthy, and contains an extensive settlement of industrious farmers. The court house and jail are brick. The Methodist society, which is large, has a house of worship. In Mount Carmel are ten stores, two groceries, (or "doggeries," as our correspondent calls them, and further states, "the keepers are getting ashamed of them,")— two taverns and a third in course of preparation, one stationed preacher, and four local preachers, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, one German Reformed preacher, two physicians, one steam doctor, three lawyers, and from one thousand to twelve hundred population. The religious denominations, are Methodists (Episcopal,) numerous, evangelical Lutherans,associated with the German Reformed, Presbyterians, some Baptists and Episcopalians—three steam mills, one ox tread mill, mechanics and trades of various descriptions, a foundry for castings for machinery, etc. The commerce of this place is considerable, and from the 31st of March to the 12th of April, 1837, 26 steam boats arrived and departed.
Mount Flat Head, on the west side of the Des Plaines, and two miles below Mount Joliet. It extends two miles; the north end is rounded—the south end irregularly shaped—its contents sand, gravel, and coarse pebbles, worn smooth by water friction.
Mount Joliet, a mound situated on the west bank of the Des Plaines, about sixteen miles above its junction with the Kankakee. It is in the southwestern part of Cook county, in township thirty-five north, in range ten east from the third principal meridian. It is in the midst of a large plain, covered in summer with short, thin grass, and which bears striking marks of having been once inundated. Its size is variously estimated. Beck, in his Gazetteer, states, "It is three or four hundred yards in length, north and south, and two or three hundred in breadth, east and west, it is in the form of a pyramid, and is evidently the work of art." From the last position I entirely dissent. From all the facts I have gathered from those who have visited it, I have no doubt, but like similar eminences in every part of the globe, it is a natural production. Several gentlemen, who have passed this mouud without stopping particularly to measure it, have estimated its length one mile, its breadth, at the base, half a mile, and its height one hundred and fifty feet. It appears to be an immense pile of sand and pebbles, similar to the sand ridges along the Illinois river. This name was given by the companions of Joliet, who visited this country in 1673.
Mount Pleasant, in St. Clair county, and four miles northeast of Belleville, the residence of William Kinney, a former lieutenant governor of the state, and now president of the "Board of Public Works."
Mount Pleasant, a post office in Union county, east of Jonesboro', on the road to Vienna. (See Stokes's Settlement.)
Mount Pulaski, a town site in Sangamon county, on an elevated prairie, in township eighteen north, range two west.
Mount Sterling, a post office and town site in Six's prairie, Schuyler county, seventeen miles west of Rushville, on the mail road to Quincy. It has four stores, one minister and a small Presbyterian church, organised, various mechanics, and about 150 inhabitants.
Mount St. Charles, in Jo Daviess county, twelve miles east of Galena. The surrounding country becomes elevated to the height of seven or eight hundred feet above the mining country generally. This mount, like a pyramid, rises from the centre of this elevation one hundred and fifty feet. The base of the whole mount includes two or three square miles;—the base of the pyramid is one fourth of a mile in length, and two hundred and fifty yards in breadth. Its top is long and quite narrow. The whole mound, as is the case with many smaller ones, is a natural formation.
MOUNT VERNON, the seat of justice for Jefferson county, situated on the stage road from St. Louis, by Carlyle, to Shawneetown, on section twenty-nine, township two south, in range three east of the third principal meridian, and near the centre of the county. It has six stores, three groceries, one tavern, two physicians, two ministers, a court house and jail, a Methodist Episcopal and a Baptist society, and various mechanics, and 140 inhabitants, and is pleasantly situated on the north side of Casey's prairie, and surrounded with a considerable settlement. It is in latitude thirty-eight degrees twenty minutes north, forty-seven and a half miles a little east of south from Vandalia.
Mouth of Ohio, The importance of a good town site, at the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, has, for many years, excited the attention of the enterprising. It is a feature in our western rivers, with few exceptions, that at and near their junction, the land is-alluvion, of a recent formation, and at the high annual floods, usually inundated to the depth of several feet. This is the case, particularly at the mouth of the Ohio. For twelve miles along that river, above its mouth, and a farther distance along the Mississippi, and across the point to Cash river, the country is suhject to annual inundations. Had the author of nature formed here an elevated situation, nothing could have prevented this spot from becoming the central commercial emporium of the great western valley. The immense trade of the Ohio and Mississippi, at some future day, will warrant the expense of forming a site here for a commercial town. The termination of the great central railroad will greatly facilitate this object, and, with the commerce of these great rivers, build up a splendid city. In due time, art, enterprise, and perseverance will triumph over nature at this place, and a large commercial city will exist where now the waters of the Ohio and Mississippi occasionally spread.
Mud Creek, a small stream in the southwestern part of Washington and southeast part of St. Clair counties. It rises in the northwestern part of Perry county, takes a northwestern direction, and enters the Kaskaskia river opposite an island in township two south, six west. A smaller creek, in the same region, is called Little Mud creek.
Mud Creek, a branch of Vermilion river in Livingston county. It rises in the prairie, runs southwest, and enters Vermilion, twelve miles below Otter creek. Weed's settlement is on it near the head of the timber.
Muddy, a small stream and branch of the Embarras, in Lawrence county, ten miles west from Lawrenceville.
Muddy, a branch of the Little Wabash that flows into it on its eastern side, in Clay county, just below the Vincennes road. Between the two streams for some distance, is a swamp, which overflows in high water.
Muddy Creek, in Lawrence county, rises in the prairie, runs north of east, and enters the Embarras, five miles above Lawrenceville. Land, second rate; population forty or fifty families.
Muddy Fork, a branch of the Embarras river, in Coles county, that enters the Embarras, three miles below the national road.
Muddy Point, in the southwestern part of Coles county, and one of the heads of the Little Wabash. The timber is excellent, prairie adjoining is rolling and rich, and the settlement consists of eighty or one hundred families.
Mud Prairie is on Mud creek, a small branch of Big Beaucoup creek. It lies in Washington and Perry counties, fourteen miles northeast from Pinckneyville, and is level and rather wet.
Mud Prairie, in Wayne county, eight miles northwest from Fairfield, is a low, wet tract, rightly named.
Mulberry Grove, a small grove at the head of Apple creek, near the boundary line of Morgan and Sangamon counties.
Mulberry Grove Post Office, the eastern side of Bond county, on the road to Vandalia.
Muskeeto Creek, rises in the large prairie of Macon county, and enters the North fork of Sangamon, in Sangamon county.
Muscooten Bay, a large body of water in the northwest part of Morgan county, that unites with the Illinois river just above Beardstown. In high water it becomes connected with the Sangamon river.
Napierville, a town in Cook county, on the east side of the west fork of the Du Page, and has four stores, a saw and grist mill, a school, twenty-five families, and two-hundred and fifty inhabitants. The country around is dry, undulating surface, and rich soil, with a tolerable supply of timber on the Du Page.
Naples, a commercial town in Morgan county, situated on the Illinois river, two miles above the mouth of the Mauvaiseterre, on section twelve, township fifteen north, in range fourteen west from the third principal meridian. It is laid off on a level prairie, at the foot of a sand ridge, and above ordinary high water. Very occasionally, extreme floods will come over a portion of the town site. Here are several stores, three taverns, a medical and drug shop, two physicians, a number of mechanics, three steam mills, and one hundred families. Its commerce is considerable. In 1835, the arrivals and departures of steamboats-amounted to 302. Exports in produce, 1835, $965,000. Imports in merchandise and sold wholesale and retail, 25,000. A railroad to Jacksonville is now in progress of construction; distance, via Bethel, 20 miles.
Narrows, or Little Detroit, a place so called, on Peoria lake five miles above Peoria. The bluffs from the west side here touch the lake, and the Galena road runs at the foot.
Narrows. Two places in Morgan county bear this name. One is now Sweet's Settlement, five miles east of Jacksonville. The other is on the road from Springfield to Beardstown, ten miles from the latter place. Here is a fine settlement, good prairie, with points and groves of timber. The settlement receives its name from two points of timber approaching.
NASHVILLE, the seat of justice for Washington county, is situated on a beautiful and elevated prairie, near the head of Little Crooked creek, and two and a half miles south of east from the centre of the county. It is situated on section twenty-four, township two south, range three west of the third principal meridian. It contains three stores, several mechanics, a steam mill, and fifteen or twenty families. It is on the borders of an arm of the Grand prairie, elevated, rich and undulating.
Nettle Creek, a trifling stream in Morgan county, near Winchester. The settlement contains one hundred families.
Nettle Creek, in La Salle county. (See Mason.)
Newbern, a post office in Greene county, seven miles northeast from Grafton.
NEW BOSTON, the seat of justice for Mercer county, situated on the Mississippi, two and a half miles above the mouth of Edwards river. It is a small but growing place.
New Castle, a town site in the southwest part of McLean county in township twenty-one north, range one east.
New Design is in Monroe county, four miles south of Waterloo. This is one of the oldest American settlements in Illinois. The land was originally a mixture of timber and prairie.
New Haven, a post town, two miles above the mouth of the Little Wabash, on the line between Gallatin and White counties. Here is a large saw and flouring mill, with several stores, and about fifteen or twenty families.
New Lexington, a town site and post office eight miles northwesterly from Jacksonville, in Morgan county. It has two stores, two groceries, and fifteen or twenty families.
Newlin's Settlement, in Crawford county, ten miles northwest from Palestine, on the borders of a prairie, with fifty or sixty families.
Newman's Branch, a trifling stream in Morgan county, that runs southwest, and enters the Mauvaiseterre north of Jacksonville.
Newport, a town site and landing at the mouth of Apple creek, in Greene county. It contains two or three stores, and half a dozen families.
New Salem, a post office and town located in Sangamon county, on the southwest side of Sangamon river, on a bluff and surrounded with a large settlement. It has three or four stores, and thirty families. A grist and saw mill is here, erected on Sangamon river. It is on section twenty-five, eighteen north, seven west.
NEWTON, the seat of justice for Jasper county, situated on the west side of the Embarras, on the road from Palestine to Vandalia and about the centre of the county. It has one store, one grocery, a Baptist society, and 100 inhabitants.
New Virginia, a settlement and tract of country in Bond county, two miles east cf Greenville, and on the head waters of Beaver creek. Here are several fine groves, and good prairie.
Nine Mile Creek, in Randolph county. It rises northeast of Kaskaskia, takes a western direction, and enters the Kaskaskia river ten or twelve miles above the town. A branch of it is called Little Nine Mile creek.
Nine Mile Prairie, in Perry county, lies ten miles east of Pinckneyville, and a post office of the same name. It is about nine miles in diameter, tolerably level, and considerable population around it.
North Arm, a prairie and a settlement, in Edgar county, six miles east of Paris. The prairie is good land, about three miles wide. Its east end runs to the state line, and its west end unites with the grand prairie. The settlement is large and dense.
North Fork, a post office, in section twenty-five, township twenty-two north, twelve west in Vermilion county.
North Fork of the Embarras rises in the southwest part of Clark county, runs south near the line between Crawford and Jasper, and enters the Embarras at the southeast corner of the latter county. The country is a level, timbered tract, in some places rather wet.
North Fork of the Macoupin. This stream is the same as Hodges's or Otter creek, but the settlement, which, is extensive and flourishing, is known by the name of North Fork.
North Fork of Salt Creek. It rises in McLean county, and, with Lake fork, forms the head of one of the principal branches of the Sangamon river.
North Grove, in Cass county, is at the head of Clear creek, twelve miles east from Beardstown. It has fine timber.
North Grove at the head of Leaf river in Ogle county.
North Prairie, in Morgan county, twelve miles north easterly from Jacksonville, is a delightful tract of rich, dry, undulating prairie. A large settlement surrounds it, and several families from Virginia have recently made locations in it.
North Prairie, on the south side of the Manvaiseterre in Morgan county, and adjoining Walnut creek. It is level.
Norris's Settlement in Greene county, twelve miles northeasterly from Carrollton, with a proportion of timber and prairie, rather level, but good soil.
Norwegian Grove is on the east fork of the Kishwaukee in Boone county.
Oakland, a post office and settlement in Coles county, 14 miles northeast from Charleston, and on the road from Springfield to Paris and Terre Haute.
Ogle's Creek, a small stream in St. Clair county that rises in the west end of Ogle's prairie, runs a northeast course and enters Silver creek.
Ogle's Prairie, a beautiful, undulating prairie, in St. Clair county, five miles north of Belleville. It is five miles long, and from one to two miles wide, surrounded, and partly covered, with a flourishing settlement and fine farms.
Ohio Settlement, in Fork prairie, Bond county, five miles north of Greenville, is of considerable extent. The land is second rate.
Ohio Grove is in the east fork of the Kishwankee four miles from its mouth, near the corners of Winnebago and Boone counties.
Okau, (Au Kas, Fr.) a name frequently given to the Kaskaskia river. It appears to have been originally a contraction, using the first syllable for the whole name, and prefixing the article—a practice common among the early settlers and explorers of Illinois.
Okau post office is in Washington county, section twenty-five, township one south, five west, on the road from Nashville by Middleton's Ferry to Lebanon.
Okau Settlement, in the southeastern part of Macon county, twenty miles from Decatur, lies on the West fork of the Kaskaskia, and contains twenty or thirty families.
Olmsted's Mound, an eminence in the prairie in Morgan county, eight miles south of west from Jacksonville. It was the temporary seat of justice for this county previous to 1825.
Oldmarts Creek, a small stream in the country attached to La Salle county, that enters Rock river eighteen miles above Dixon's ferry.
Oliver's sometimes called Men's Prairie, in the corner of Hancock, Adams, and Schuyler counties. It is twelve miles long, and from two to four miles broad.
Old Town Timber, (See Dawson's Grove.)
O'Neal's Creek, is a branch of Crooked creek, in Schuyler county, ten miles from Rushville.
Ono, a post office in Edgar county, on section four, township fourteen north, eleven west, six miles north-northeast from Paris.
Orendorff's Mill and settlement is on Sugar creek, in the south part of Tazewell county. The settlement is large, and the land good.
Oregon City, is the temporary seat of justice for Ogle county, situated on the north side of Rock river on a handsome elevated alluvion bottom, ten miles above Grand Detour, and fifteen miles above Dixonville. It has two stores and eight or ten families.
OTTAWA, the seat of justice for La Salle county, was laid off by the canal commissioners, in 1830, at the junction of Fox river with the Illinois, and is thought by many to be an important location for business. It is laid off on both sides of the Illinois river, on the entire section numbered eleven, and in township thirty-three north, in range three east of the third principal meridian. At the town site, the water of the Illinois is deep, and the landing convenient. Steamboats reach this place in the spring, and at other seasons when the water is high. Below, for the distance of eight or nine miles, are rapids and shoals, formed by barriers of sand and lime stone rock. Ottawa has 8 or 10 stores, 2 taverns, 3 physicians, 5 lawyers, and 75 or 80 families. Large additions have been made to the town plat by laying off additional lots on lands adjoining. It is expected a lateral canal from the Illinois and Michigan canal will pass through the town to the Illinois river. This, by means of a feeder to the rapids of Fox river will open a navigation into Kane county. Fox river is susceptible of improvement by slackwater at small expense, into the Wisconsin territory, and from thence by a short canal of fifteen miles may become connected with Milwaukee. Hence Ottawa may be regarded as one of the most important sites for commercial business in the state. Near it dams are already projected across the Illinois river and immense water power thus created. The Ottawa Republican a weekly paper is published here. The country around is pleasant, undulating, and well adapted to farming. The timber is in small quantities, chiefly in groves; the prairie land generally dry and rich soil. Lime, and coarse free stone, in great abundance.
Otter Creek, a small stream that rises in the prairies in the southwestern part of Greene county, runs a westerly course, and enters the Illinois river about fourteen miles above its junction with the Mississippi. Towards its head is fine, undulatrftg^prairie, but lower down the surface is timbered and broken.
Otter Creek rises in the southwestern part of Fulton county, runs east, then south, and enters the Illinois in section twenty-two, three north, three east. Large bodies of timber and good coal are on this stream.
Otter Creek, in Livingston county, rises in La Salle county, runs southwest, and enters Vermilion river in the southwest corner of thirty north, four east. Here is a valuable body of timber, rolling and rich prairie and a large settlement.
Out House Settlement, on Sugar creek, in Clinton county, twenty-two miles southwest from Carlyle.
Ox Bow Prairie is in Putnam county, ten miles south of Hennepin. It is a rich prairie, five miles long, and from one to two miles wide, shaped like an ox bow, and surrounded with excellent timber. The prairie is overspread with fine farms.
Paddock's Settlement is in Madison county, on the Springfield road, seven miles north of Edwardsville. The prairie is undulating, fertile, and healthy.
Panky's Settlement is in the southeast corner of Pope county.
Panther Creek heads in McLean county, runs southeast, and enters the Mackinau near the county line
Panther Creek, in Sangamon county, a trifling stream and branch of Sugar creek, in fifteen north, five west.
Panther Creek is in the northeastern part of Morgan county, and enters Sangamon river.
Panther Grove, a point of timber on Panther creek, in Morgan county. Another grove, called Little Panther, lies east of it.
PALESTINE, the seat of justice for Crawford county, situated three miles from the Wabash river, on the borders of Lamotte prairie, and in sections thirty-three and thirty-four, township seven north, in range eleven west of the second principal meridian. It is twenty-five miles north of Vincennes, in latitude thirty-eight degrees, fifty-eight minutes north, and eighty-two miles east irom Vandalia. It has 4 stores, 2 groceries, 3 taverns, 2 lawyers, 4 physicians, 2 ministers, about 450 inhabitants, 2 apothecaries' shops and a land office, and mechanics of various trades. The religious denominations are Presbyterians, Methodists and Baptists. The Methodists have a house of warship.
Palmer's Settlement, above the south fork of Spoon river, in the county of Knox, and near the line of Fulton county.
Pappoose Creek rises in the swampy land in the eastern part of Boone county, runs a southwestern course and enters the North Fork of the Kishwaukee. Timber oak barrens, chiefly bur oak; soil sandy and gravelly.
Paradise, a post office at the head of the Little Wabash, in Coles county, on the road from Shelbyville to Charleston.
PARIS, the county seat for Edgar county, on section one, thirteen north, twelve west of the second principal meridian. It is a pleasant village, on the borders of a rich prairie, surrounded with good farms, and has a court house of brick, 7 stores, 2 groceries, 1 tavern, 4 physicians, 3 lawyers, and about 55 families, or 275 inhabitants.
Parker's Prairie is a large, level prairie, on the western side of Clark county, somewhat wet, soil second rate. A considerable settlement.
Parker's Settlement is ten miles southwest from Palestine, in Crawford county. A mixture of timber and prairie, and about forty families.
Parr's Settlement is in Bond county, seven miles north of Greenville, adjoining, and within the timbered tract, on the East fork of Shoal creek.
Paupau Grove is at the head of Indian creek, Kane county. It is a rich tract of country.
Peek-a-ton-o-kee, a large, navigable stream that enters Rock river, in Jo Daviess county, about six miles below the boundary line. It rises in two principal branches, near the Blue Mounds, in Wisconsin territory, called the East and West forks, which unite before they enter the state of Illinois. The East fork rises north of the Blue Mounds, near the head of Grant river. The West fork runs near the Blue Mounds. After their junction, the Peek-a-ton-o-kee runs first a south course into Illinois, thence a southeast course, and finally winds round north of east, and enters Rock river. It is one hundred yards wide at the mouth, eighty yards wide at the boundary line, and is navigable for flat boats to Mineral Point, in the Wisconsin territory. I have had no little trouble in determining the orthography of this name. Its aboriginal meaning is said to be "Swift water." By many persons, it is written and pronounced Pik-e-tol-e-ka. I have adopted the orthography and pronunciation of gentlemen from its vicinity.
PEKIN is situated on the east side of the Illinois river, twelve miles below Peoria, on fractional section thirty-three, twenty-five north, five west of the third principal meridian, on a sandy bluff, elevated and pleasant. The landing is tolerably good at a moderate stage of the river, but too shoal at the low stage. Pekin contains twelve stores, three groceries, two taverns, (and a splendid hotel building by a company,) seven lawyers, four physicians, four ministers of the gospel, one drug store, three forwarding and commission houses, two houses for slaughtering and packing pork, one auction house, a printing office which issues the Tazewell Telegraph, and about eight-hundred inhabitants. There is also one steam flouring mill that mannfactures two hundred barrels of flour per day, a steam saw mill and two steam distilleries, an academy and a common school. The religious denominations are Presbyterian, Methodist and Unitarian, which have houses of worship.
PEORIA, the seat of justice for Peoria county, situated on the west bank of the Illinois river, on section nine, eight north, eight east, and formerly called Fort Clark. From a report made by Edward Coles, Esq. formerly governor of Illinois, to the Secretary of the treasury, it may be learned, "The old village of Peoria was situated one mile and a half above the lower extremity or outlet of the Peoria lake. This village had been inhabited by the French previous to the recollection of the present generation. About the year 1778 or 1779, the first house was built in what was then called La Ville de Maillet, afterwards the new village of Peoria, and which has recently been known by the name of Fort Clark, situated about one mile and a half below the old village, immediately at the lower point, or outlet of the lake. The situation being preferred on account of the water being better, and its being thought more healthy, the inhabitants gradually deserted the old village, and by the year 1796 or 1797, had entirely abandoned it, and removed to the new one.
"The inhabitants of Peoria consisted generally of Indian traders, hunters, and voyagers, and had long formed a link of connection betwen the French residing on the great lakes and the Mississippi river. From that happy felicity of adapting themselves to their situation and associates, for which the French are so remarkable, the inhabitants of Peoria lived generally in harmony with their savage neighbours. It appears, however, that about the year 1781, they were induced to abandon the village from an apprehension of Indian hostility; but soon after the peace of 1783, they again returned, and continued to reside there until the autumn of 1812, when they were forcibly removed from it, and the place destroyed by a captain Craig, of the Illinois militia, on the ground, it was said, that his company of militia was fired on in the night, while at anchor in their boats before the village, by Indians, with whom the inhabitants were suspected by Craig to be too intimate and friendly."
The inhabitants being thus driven from the place, fled to the French settlements on the Mississippi for shelter.
In 1813, Peoria was occupied by the United States troops, and a block house erected and called Fort Clark. The timber was cut on the opposite side of the lake, and with considerable labor transported across, and hauled on truck wheels by the men.
After the termination of the war, Fort Clark was abandoned, and the buildings soon after burnt by the Indians.
The present town is near its ruins.
Without intending to do injustice to several other beautiful town sites along the upper parts of the Illinois river, amongst which is Pekin, Hennepin, the foot of the rapids, Ottawa, etc. I shall copy from Beck's Gazetteer the following description of Peoria.
"The situation of this place, is beautiful beyond description. From the mouth of the Kickapoo, or Redbud creek, which empties into the Illinois two miles below the old fort, the alluvion is a prairie which stretches itself along the river three or four miles.
"The shore is chiefly made up of rounded pebbles, and is filled with springs of the finest water. The first bank, which is from six to twelve feet above high water mark, extends west about a quarter of a mile from the river, gradually ascending, when it rises five or six feet to the second bank. This extends nearly on a level to the bluffs, which are from sixty to one hundred feet in height. These bluffs consist of rounded pebbles, overlaying strata of lime stone and sand stone, rounded at the top, and corresponding in their course with the meanders of the river and lake. The ascent, although steep, is not perpendicular. On the bluffs, the surface again becomes level, and is beautifully interspersed with prairie and woodland.
"From the bluffs the prospect is uncommonly fine. Looking towards the east you first behold an extensive prairie, which, in spring and summer, is covered with grass, with whose green the brilliant hues of a thousand flowers form the most lively contrast. Beyond this, the lake, clear and calm, may be seen emptyihg itself into, or by its contraction forming the river, whose meanders, only hid from the view by the beautiful groves of timber which here and there arise, can be traced to the utmost extent of vision."
Peoria is now rapidly advancing in population and improvements. In the summer of 1833, it consisted of about twenty-five families. These more than doubled in a few weeks from emigration. Peoria now has twenty-five stores, two wholesale and five retail groceries, two drug stores, two hotels and several boarding houses, two free schools and an incorporated academy, two Presbyterian houses of worship and congregations, one Methodist, one Baptist, one Unitarian and one Episcopal congregation, six lawyers, eight or ten physicians, one brewery, two steam sawmills, the usual proportion of mechanics, a court house and jail and a population from fifteen to eighteen hundred, and rapidly increasing. The "Peoria Register and Northwestern Gazetteer" is issued weekly, by S. M. Davis, Esq. The religious people of this place appear to have been uncommonly liberal, by contributing about twenty-three thousand dollars the past year for philanthropic purposes.
Peoria Lake, an expansion of the Illinois river, commencing at Peoria, and extending about twenty miles in a northeasterly direction. It is much wider than the river, andhas very little current. The water is clear, and its bottom gravelly. It may be considered as two lakes, divided by the Narrows. It abounds with various kinds of fish, such as sturgeon, buffalo, bass of several species, perch, white fish, pickerel, etc., which can be caught with the seine in great abundance. The Indian name for this lake is Pin-a-ta-wee. Some authors call it Illinois Lake.
Perkin's Settlement-is in the northeast part of Hancock county, on the head waters of Crooked creek. The name of the post office is Fountain Green.
Peru, a post office, landing and town site, on the north side of the Illinois river, on section sixteen, township thirty-three north, one east, and one mile below the termination of the Illinois and Michigan canal. It has one warehouse and two or three families.
Perry, a town site in Pike county, on section twenty-one, township three south, three west. It has two or three stores, several families, and is a pleasant village, surrounded with a fine country, diversified with timber and prairie.
Petersburg, a town and post office, on the west side of Sangamon river, in Sangamon county, on fractional section fourteen, township eighteen north, seven west, and about seventeen miles northeast from Springfield. It has six stores, a steam saw and grist mill, and twenty families.
Phelps's Grove is on a small stream in Ogle county, that enters Rock river three miles above Oregon city.
Phelps's Prairie, in Franklin county on the waters of Crab Orchard creek, twelve miles south of Frankfort, is good land, and somewhat rolling. In its neighbourhood is Poor prairie, a wet, level tract; and Wright's prairie, an undulating tract, with a considerable settlement.
Phigley's Settlement lies between the head waters of McKee's creek and Bear creek, in Adams county. It has about twenty-five families. The land is rather flat, but good,-—about twenty miles east from Quincy.
Phil's Creek enters the Macoupin on the south side, about the middle of township nine north, eleven west. It heads in the prairies near the sources of the Piasau. There is considerable timber, with excellent prairie on the borders of this stream.
Phillips's Settlement, in the northwestern part of Alexander county, on Sexton's creek, twenty-five miles from America, consists of eight or ten families.
Piankeshau Bend, on the Wabash river, in Wabash county, eighteen miles north from Mount Carmel. It is a fertile tract, timber rather scarce, with a mixture of prairie and barrens.
Piasau, a small stream that rises in a beautiful tract of country near the line of Greene and Macoupin counties, and enters the Mississippi about ten miles above Lower Alton.
Pigeon Creek is a stream that rises in Adams county, and runs westward near that and Pike county, which it enters, and passes into the Snycartee slough three miles below the county line. In the bottom, the land is level, dry, and excellent—on the bluffs, somewhat broken.
Pilot Knob, in the western part of Washington county, a singular eminence and point of observation on the old Vincennes and Kaskaskia trace.
PINCKNEYVILLE, a small village, and the seat of justice for Perry county. It is situated on the west side of Big Beaucoup creek, at the head of the four mile prairie, and on section twenty-four, five south, three west, it has four stores, one tavern, one grocery, and fifteen or twenty families, and is surrounded with a large settlement of industrious farmers.
Pine Creek, in Ogle county. It rises in the prairie between Rock river and White Oak grove, runs a southeast course and enters Rock river at Grand Detour, and is a good mill stream. Its timber is shrubby pine, white, black, red and bur oaks, hickory, linden, sugar maple, elm, &c. One-sixth part of the land on its borders is timbered. The prairie adjoining is elevated, rolling and rich, and the country abounds with fine springs.
Pinus, a post office in Jackson county, on section thirty-four, township ten south, two west, twelve miles south-southeast from Brownsville.
Piper's Point, a settlement in Greene county, sixteen miles northeast from Carrollton, adjoining String prairie, and the timher of Apple creek. The land is tolerahly level, rich, and proportionably divided into timber, and prairie. There are sixty or seventy families in this settlement.
Piskusau, a branch of Kishwaukee. It rises in Boone county, and some of its head branches probably over the boundary line, runs a southwestern course, and enters the. north branch of the Kishwaukee, in section twenty-five, township forty-four north, range four east. Near its head the soil is wet, but further down, dry and undulating.
PITTSFIELD, the new seat of justice for Pike.county, was laid off in April, 1833, on the southwest quarter of section twenty-four, five south, four west. It is a high and healthy situation, in an undulating prairie, and on the dividing ridge nearly equidistant from the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. The country around is fertile, and proportionably distributed into timber and prairie, and is rapidly settling.
Pittsfield has three stores, two groceries, two taverns, three lawyers, one physician, several mechanics, and from 150 to 200 inhabitants.
Plainfield, a village and post town, in Will county, on section nine, township thirty-six north, nine east, and nine miles north-northwest from Juliet. It has two stores, two taverns, several mechanical trades, a Methodist and a Baptist congregation with houses of worship, and between four and five hundred inhabitants. Plainfield is beautifully situated on an undulating prairie, east side of the Du Page, and adjoining Walker's grove.
Plato, a town site laid off on Iroquois river, four miles from the mouth of Spring creek, in Iroquois county. A steam mill is to be erected here.
Pleasant Grove, in Boone county, on the stage road from Chicago to Galena, on the southeast side of the Kishwaukee, and twelve miles east of Belvidere. It is about four miles long and one mile wide, surrounded with a rich, undulating prairie. A considerable settlement around.
Pleasant Grove, three miles long and one wide, and a settlement of twenty-five or thirty families, in Tazewell county, eight miles east of Pekin, on the waters of Dillon's creek. The land is rich, and the timber consists of walnut, sugar maple, linden, oak, etc.
Pleasant Grove, in Morgan county, a settlement on the borders of Sweet's prairie, between Manchester and Winchester. The land in this quarter is good, with a due mixture of timber and prairie.
Pleasant Vale, a town site and post office in Pike county, on section nine, township five south, six west, seventeen miles northwest from Pittsfield. It is pleasantly situated under the bluffs, and surroundedwith rich land, both timber and prairie.
Plum Creek, in Randolph county, enters the Kaskaskia river from the east side, eighteen miles above Kaskaskia.
Plum Creek rises in the prairie of Morgan county, west of Jacksonville, runs west, and enters the Illinois river below Phillip's ferry.
Plum Creek Prairie is near the boundary line of St. Clair and Randolph counties, ten miles long, and three broad; good soil, and scattering settlements along its borders.
Plum River, in Jo Daviess county, rises near Kellogg's grove, runs southwest, and enters the Mississippi ten miles below Rush creek. It is a good mill stream. Above its mouth are rapids. The country along its borders is a mixture of timber and prairie. It is divided into South, North, and Middle forks, and here is some of the finest farming land in the country.
Point Republic, a post office and settlement, near the Vermilion river, in La Salle county, and on the road from Hennepin to Ottawa.
Polecat Creek, a stream in Coles county, that rises in the prairies towards Edgar county, runs southwest, and enters the Embarras east of Charleston. Near its head is a very fertile region, well timbered: further down the surface is broken. The settlement has thirty families.
Pond Slough, the name given to the outlet of a line of ponds in Johnson county, between Big Bay creek and Cash river. It is a deep, muddy channel. [See Cash river.]
Pope's River rises in the great prairies in the south part of Henry county, between Henderson's and Edwards's rivers, runs a west course through Mercer county, and enters the Mississippi, a few miles below Edwards's river. In Mercer county there-are some fine tracts of timber on this stream, further up it passes through a prairie country. The land generally on Pope's and Edwards's rivers is abundantly rich, but there is a deficiency of timber.
Postville, in the northeastern part of Sangamon county, on section twenty-five, township twenty north, range three east, and on the north side of Salt creek. It has 2 stores, 1 grocery, and 3 or 4 families.
Potatoe Creek rises on the west side of Fulton county, near Table grove, runs a southeastern course, and enters Spoon river about four miles west of Lewistown. Excellent land, both prairie and timbered, adjoins it.
Prairie Creek in Sangamon county, a trifling stream that rises in the prairie between Spring and Richland creeks; makes a circuit in sixteen north, six west, and enters the latter before its junction with Sangamon river. Prairie de Long Creek rises north of Waterloo, near the dividing line of St. Clair and Monroe counties, runs southeasterly through the eastern part of Monroe, receives Richland creek, and enters the Kaskaskia river in the southwestern part of township three south, range seven west. Along its borders is a considerable settlement, and the soil in some parts is good, in others inferior.
Prairie du Pont, [pronounced Prairie du Po, Fr.] a small stream in St. Clair county. It rises in the bluffs southwest of Belleville, passes through the American bottom, and enters the Mississippi in the southwestern part of the county. An old French village, with the appendage of commons and common fields to the same, located a short distance south of Cahokia.
Prairie du Rocher, an ancient French village, in Randolph county, on the American bottom, near the Rocky bluffs, from which it derives its name, fourteen miles-northwest of Kaskaskia. It is a low, unhealthy situation, along a small creek of the samo name, which rises in the bluffs, passes across the American bottom, and enters the Mississippi. The houses are built in the French style, the streets very narrow, and the inhabitants preserve more of the simplicity of character and habits peculiar to early times, than any village in Illinois. It has its village lots, common fields, and commons, the peculiarities of which are noticed under the article "Cahokia". Prairie du Rocher, in 1766, contained fourteen families; the population at present is estimated at thirty-five families. Here is a Catholic church dedicated to St. Sulspice, but at present has no resident priest. American settlers have not yet disturbed the repose of this ancient community. The ruins of Fort Chartres are three miles north west from this village.
Pratt's Prairie, in the northeastern part of Greene county, fifteen miles northwesterly from Carrollton.
Prather's Settlement, on Apple creek, in the northeastern part of Greene county, sixteen miles from Carrollton.
Preston, a town site in Randolph county, east of the Kaskaskia river.
Prophet's village, a post office and town site on Rock river, in Henry county, and on the road from Rushville and Warren county to Galena. On the south side of the river is a handsome town site, on a high, undulating bottom. The opposite side of the river is inundated at high floods. Rock river can be forded at this place for two-thirds of the year. It is about two hundred yards wide. The country around will admit of considerable settlements.
Prospect Hill, in St. Clair county, one mile south of Belleville, and the residence of Major Washington West. Spread out before this delightful situation is one of the most beautiful prairies in the state, about five miles in extent, and partially covered with well cultivated farms.
Prince's Settlement is on a branch of Spoon river, twenty miles northwest from Peoria, in ten and eleven north, ranges six and seven east. Here are three groves of timber from which at least one hundred farms might be supplied. The soil is a rich clay, and undulating. The present population does not exceed fifteen families.
Princeton, a town site on the borders of Jersey prairie, in Morgan county, ten miles north from Jacksonville, in township seventeen north, in range ten west. The surface is undulating, and the surrounding country one of of the finest tracts of land in the state, and the settlement is large. The post office is called Workman.
Princeton, a town site in Putnam county, in Bureau settlement, ten miles north of west from Hennepin. It was laid off by colonists from Northampton, Massachusetts in 1833, contains a post office of the same name, and is in the heart of a flourishing settlement and a rich body of land.
Puncheon Camp, a creek near the north side of Morgan county, that enters the Sangamon. It is divided into two branches. A grove of the same name is on this stream.
Putnam Creek rises towards Canton, in Fulton county, and taking a southwestern course, enters Spoon river.
QUINCY, the seat of justice of Adams county, is situated on the bluff of the Mississippi on section two, two south, nine west. It has seven stores, four groceries, one cardino- machine, one large flouring and saw mill by steam powerrwith four run of burr stones, two schools, seven lawyers, four physicians, several mechanics, about one hundred families and six hundred inhabitants. The land office for the sale of Congress lands north and east of the Illinois river, is located at this place. The land in the vicinity is excellent. A low alluvion lies on the opposite side of the Mississippi river, which is overflowed in high waters. Quincy must become a place of considerable business.
Quaker Settlement, near the Wabash, in the northeastern part of Crawford county, on Racoon creek. Here is a society of Friends who keep up regular meetings.
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