A Gazetteer of Illinois; in Three Parts

BY J. M. Peck
Philadelphia: 1837.



Hadley's Creek rises in the north part of Pike county, in four south, three west, and enters the Snycartee slough. The land is undulating but good.

Hadley, a post office and settlement, in Will county, eight miles northeast of Juliett, and on the road to Chicago.

Hamburg, a landing on the Mississippi, in Calhoun county, and the residence of John Shaw, Esq., ten miles northwest of Gilead. The landing is said to be good, and the bank high. Here is a post office of the same name.

Hammet's Settlement, in Coles county, on the east side of the Embarras, twenty-two miles north of Charleston. The land is good, generally rolling, and the settlement has twelve or fifteen families.

Hancock Prairie commences above Bear creek, in Adams county. This is an extensive tract of rich prairie, tolerably level, which runs through Hancock county, enters Warren, and stretches between Henderson and Spoon rivers indefinitely north. Its width is various, being from ten to twenty miles. A principal road to Rock river and northward passes through this prairie.

Hanover, a town site in Tazewell county, on sections seventeen and twenty, township twenty-seven north, range two west, and on the road from Springfield, via Tremont, to Ottawa. A steam mill and several buildings are in process of erection. A charter has been obtained for a college, which is contemplated to be brought into operation by the Baptist Reformers.

Hardens Settlement, in the southeast part of Hancock county, on the head and along the North fork of Bear creek. The land is excellent and welt watered, with a tolerable supply of good timber.

Hargrave's Prairie, in Wayne county, adjoining Fairfield. It is about seven miles long and two wide: rolling, and thin soil. Population about one hundred families.

Harkness's Settlement is on the west side of Peoria county, adjoining Fulton, twelve miles west from Peoria.

Harris's Creek rises in the bluffs of the Ohio river, in Gallatin county, runs a north course, and enters Saline creek, fifteen miles below Equality. Much of the land on its borders is rough and broken, interspersed with tracts of good soil.

Harrisonville, the former seat of justice of Monroe county, situated on the east bank of the Mississippi, and nearly opposite Herculaneum. It is a place of very little account, having not more than half a dozen families.

Havanna, a town site and landing on the Illinois river, directly opposite the month of Spoon river. It has an eligible situation on a high sand ridge, fifty feet above the highest floods of the river. It is on section one, township twenty-one north, in range nine west of the third principal meridian. Havanna is well situated to receive the produce and direct the trade of a pretty extensive country on both sides of the Illinois river, and is on the great thoroughfare from Indiana, bv Danville and Bloominaton to the counties that lie to the west and north.

Haw Creek is a branch of Spoon river, twenty miles long, that rises in the middle part of Knox county, runs east, and enters Spoon river. The country on its borders is first rate for settlements, which are forming fast. It has some good mill seats.

Hawkins Prairie, in Greene county, on the south side of the Macoupin, and nine miles east of south from Carrollton.

Hazel's Settlement is in Pope county, on the road to Vienna.

Head of Apple Creek is an extensive settlement in the southeastern part of Morgan county, eighteen miles from Jacksonville. It is a fertile tract, tolerably level, and has about three hundred families.

Head of Apple River is a settlement in Jo Daviess county, southeast of Galena.

Head of Richland is a fine settlement of fifty or sixty families in Sangamon county, seventeen north, seven west, on Richland creek, fourteen miles northwest from Springfield. The land is high, dry, undulating and rich. Here is an excellent flouring mill by ox power, and a carding machine and clothier's works, for dressing cloth.

Head of Silver Creek, a settlement in the northeastern part of Madison county, surrounded with large prairies.

Head of Wood River, a settlement in the south part of Macoupin county. It is a good tract of land, and the settlement is considerable.

Henderson River rises in Knox county, takes a southwestern course through Warren, and after receiving several branches, enters the Mississippi in ten north, five west, through a low and inundated bottom. It is a beautiful stream, furnishes some good mill seats, and has a fine body of timber on its banks. The country on Henderson is considered one of the finest bodies of land in Illinois. Its principal branches are South fork, and Cedar fork. The timber is oaks of various species, hickory, walnut, ash, elm, sugar maple, linden, etc.

South Fork of Henderson river rises in ten north, five west, runs through an excellent body of land and fine settlements in Warren county. The heads of all the streams in this part of the state are in rich and dry land.

Henderson Settlement lies in Knox county, on Henderson river, ten miles north of west from Knoxville. Here is a large body of rich timbered land, surrounded with dry, fertile, first rate prairies. The settlement is sometimes called Gum's fort.

Henderson's Creek, in Greene county, a small stream that rises near the line of Morgan county, runs a south course, and empties into Apple creek.

HENNEPIN, the seat of justice for Putnam county, is situated in the great bend, and on the east bank of the Illinois river, and the border of De Pru prairie, on section nine, township thirty-two north, in range two west of the third principal meridian. Its situation is elevated, the surface gently ascending from the river, with arr extensive body of rich land adjacent. The bottom opposite is about one mile and a half wide, and overflowed in high water. This town was laid off in 1831, and contains ten stores, 4 groceries, 3 taverns, 3 lawyers, 4 physicians, Presbyterian and Methodist congregations, court house and jail, a good school, and 475 inhabitants. Steamboats ascend to this place at a moderate stage of water.

Herron's Prairie is in the southwestern part of Franklin county.

Herrington's Prairie, eleven miles northwest from Fairfield, in Wayne county, is eight miles long, from two to four miles wide, surface rolling, soil second rate, and has a settlement of fifty families.

Hickory Creek, in Coles county, rises in the Grand prairie, runs southeast, and enters the Embarras five miles below Charleston. It is a good mill stream, and the land through which it passes is undulating and rich; the settlements contain 120 families.

Hickory Creek rises in Cook county, runs a westerly course, and enters the Des Plaines nearly opposite Mount Joliet. On its banks are large bodies of excellent timber, intermixed with good prairie land. The settlements are extensive.

Hickory Creek, a small stream in Fayette county. It rises about nine miles east of Vandalia in the prairies, runs southwest, and enters the Kaskaskia five miles below Vandalia. The soil is thin, timber post and other species of oak.

Hickory Creek Post Office, is in Fayette county, in the centre of a large settlement, four and a half miles southeast from Vandalia, and on the road to Salem.

Hickory Grove, in Champaign county, on the north branch of salt fork, and 12 miles east of Urbanna. The timber is from half a mile to one and a half miles wide, and the soil and prairie round first rate.

Hickory Grove, a post office, and large settlement, on the borders of Shoal creek prairie, in Bond county, nine miles south of west from Greenville. The prairie is large undulating, and rich. The timber adjoining is excellent and abundant. The settlement contains seventy or eighty families and a store. Many European Germans are settling in the prairie.

Hickory Grove, a settlement near a point of timber in the Macoupin prairie, Greene county, twelve miles south of Carrollton, and on the road to Alton. The settlement is spreading over a fine, rich, prairie, moderately undulating.

Hickory Grove, in McDonough county, in seven north, two west, is a small and beautiful tract of timber, on the head of Camp fork. This is sometimes called Walnut grove. The prairie around it is undulating and rich.

Hickory Hill Settlement, in Wayne county, eighteen miles west from Fairfield, and on the west side of the Skillet fork. It is a mixture of timber and prairie, soil second quaility, and population about fifty families.

Higgins's Creek, a small stream in Fayette county, that enters the Kaskaskia from the west, three miles above Vandalia.

Higgins's Settlement, in Crawford county, is five miles south of Palestine.

Highland, a town site in the Looking-Glass prairie, Madison county, 16 miles southeast from Edwardsville. An extensive settlement of Germans is in its vicinity.

Highland post office and settlement is in Pike county between Pittsfield and Atlas.

High Prairie, a beautiful prairie and fine settlement in St. Clair county, eight miles south of Belleville.

Highsmith's Settlement, in Crawford county, ten miles south of Palestine. Here are considerable barrens, the timber is oak, hickory, etc., the soil a medium quality, the population twenty or twenty-five families.

HILLSBORO', the seat of justice for Montgomery county, is situated twenty-eight miles northwest from Vandalia. It has six stores, two taverns, three blacksmiths, three carpenters, one cabinet maker, two physicians, two tanneries, one shoemaker, two tailors, one tinner, a post office, 70 families, and about 350 inhabitants. It is situated in an elevated region, near middle fork of Shoal creek. The Presbyterian society in this place has built a neat brick edifice, in the modern style, for a house of worship. Hillsboro' is a healthy and flourishing town. The principal road from Vandalia to Springfield, and another from Shelbyville to Alton, pass through this place.

Hitesville, A town site and post office on the east border of Coles county, 12 miles from Charleston.

Hittle's Grove, in Tazewell county, lies between little Mackinau and Sugar creek. It is four miles long and two miles wide, and surface level; the adjoining prairie undulating.

Hodge's Creek, in Greene connty, rises in Pratt s prairie, runs southwesterly, and enters Grand Passe. It is also called Hurricane.

Hodge's Fork, a branch of the Macoupin from the north side, which unites with the main stream twelve miles east from Carrollton, and near the line of Greene county. Towards its head it is called Otter creek. See North fork of the Macoupin.

Hog Prairie is in Hamilton county, a few miles west of McLeansboro'. It is about two miles in diameter, level, and rather wet.

Holderman's Grove, in La Salle county, is sixteen miles northeast from Ottawa, containing about 500 acres of timber, and a settlement of several families. Here is a town site and post office called Lisbon.

Holland's Grove, a settlement on Farm creek, in Tazewell county. The timber and prairie are first rate. It adjoins Peoria lake.

Holland's Grove post office is in the town of Washington, which see.

Honey Creek is a stream that rises in the prairies of Warren county, runs west twenty miles, giving name to a low bottom, and enters the Mississippi, below Ellison.

Horse Creek rises near the centre of Monroe county, runs a southeasterly course into Randolph county, and enters the Kaskaskia river, in five south, eight west; several settlements lie along this creek where there is good timber and prairie land.

Horse Creek, in Sangamon county, rises in the prairies towards the head of Macoupin, and enters the South fork of Sangamon about section twenty, fifteen north, four west.

Horse Prairie, in Randolph county, on Horse creek, a rich undulating tract, and contains forty or fifty families.

Horse Shoe Lake, in Alexander county, eight or ten miles long, and from half a mile to one mile wide. Its name indicates its form, and its outlet is into Cash river.

Horse Shoe Prairie, is in the Virginia settlement, Mc Henry county, 7 miles west of Fox river.

Howard's Settlement, in Pope County, on Big creek, fifteen miles northeast from Golconda, comprises excellent land, and about seventy or eighty families.

Howards Settlement, in Madison county, on the borders of the Looking Glass prairie, thirteen miles southeasterly from Edwardsville.

Howard's Settlement, near Potatoe creek, in Fulton county, twelve miles south of west from Lewistown. The soil is good, of the description called barrens.

Hoxey's Settlement, in Madison county, on the West fork of Silver creek, nine miles northeast from Edwardsville. The prairie is undulating and rich.

Hudson, a settlement of New England people in Mc Lean county, ten miles north of Bloomington, south side and in the bend of Mackinau river.

Hyson's Creek is a small stream in Crawford county, that flows into the Wabash.

Hutsonville, a small town and post office, on Hutson's creek nine miles north of Palestine, in Crawford county.

Huey's Settlement, on the west side of the Grand prairie, in Clinton county, three miles east of Carlyle. A rich tract of prairie, bordered with heavy timber.

Hugh's Settlement, in Alexander county, on the west side of Cash river, seventeen miles north from America. Mill creek, a branch of Cash river, runs through it. The bottom and the upland are both good, and the settlement has forty or fifty families.

Huron, a town site in Sangamon county, on the south side of the Sangamon river, about thirty miles north northeast from Springfield, on the road to Fulton county. It is a good situation for a town, and where the Beardstown canal is projected to unite with the Sangamon river. It was formerly called Miller's ferry.

Hurricane Settlement, in the eastern part of Montgomery, and western part of Fayette counties. It extends along the timber of Hurricane fork, has a rolling surface, which is broken hear the creek; the timber is post oak, and the soil rather thin.

Hurricane, an extensive settlement along the creek of that name and on the eastern side of Bond county. The prairie is rather wet, the timber excellent, and in large bodies.

Hurricane Post Office is in Hurricane settlement, Montgomery county, on the road from Vandalia to Hillsboro', and equidistant from these places.

Hurricane Fork, a branch of the Kaskaskia river, rises near the line of Montgomery and Shelby counties, runs south near the western line of Fayette county, and enters the Kaskaskia on the right side, twelve miles below Vandalia. The banks of this stream are well timbered, and the low bottoms occasionally inundated.

Hutchens's Creek, a branch of Clear creek, in Union county, ten miles from Jonesboro'.

Hutchens's Settlement, in Perry county, five miles north of Pinckneyville. The surface is undulating, the soil of a middling quality, and the settlement small.

Illinois Prairie, formerly called Wolf prairie, commences near the mouth of the Illinois river, in Calhoun county, and extends twenty miles along the foot of the bluffs, adjoining the alluvion of the Illinois. Its average width is one mile and a half, the soil is good and thirty families are settled here.

Illinois River, a beautiful stream of water that passes diagonally through the state, and enters the Mississippi twenty miles above the mouth of the Missouri. It commences under its proper name at the junction of the Kankakee and Des Plaines. From thence it runs nearly a west course, (receiving Fox river at Ottawa, and Vermilion near the foot of the rapids,) to Hennepin, in township thirty-three north, and in range two west of the third principal meridian. Here it curves to the south, and then to the southwest, receiving a number of tributaries, the largest of which are Spoon and Sangamon rivers, till it reaches Naples. Here it bends gradually to the south, and continues that course till within six miles of the Mississippi, when it curves to the southeast, and finally nearly to an east course. Its length, (without reckoning the windings of the channel in navigation,) is about 260 miles. It is navigable at a moderate stage of water to the foot of the rapids, 210 miles; and to Ottawa, nine miles further, in high water, for steamboats.

In going up the river at a low stage of water the following bars and impediments to the navigation exist:
1. French bar, gravel, twenty miles above the mouth, near Smith's ferry—three feet deep at low water.

2. A bar fourteen miles further up—channel close to an island—two and a half feet at low stage.

3. At Hodge's warehouse, seven miles above the mouth of Apple creek, there is difficulty in getting a point, but no bar.

4. Six miles below Naples is a centre bar—channel near the side of the river.

5. At Meredosia, is a narrow channel on the opposite side* but no getting to the landing at very low water.

6. Three fourths of a mile below Beardstown is a bar, extending, like a wing dam, nearly across the river, excepting a narrow passage near the west shore. Any boat that can pass this bar will reach the port of the rapids.

From this imperfect sketch of the obstructions to the navigation of this river at low water, it will be seen that with the comparatively trifling expense of 100,000 dollars, which the legislature has provided, the navigation of the Illinois may be made good at all stages of water.

At high floods this river overflows its banks and covers its bottoms for a considerable extent. The Mississippi, at extreme high water, backs up the Illinois about seventy miles to the mouth of the Mauvaiseterre.

Besides several villages and commercial towns, which are springing up on the banks of the Illinois, there are many landings for goods, and deposits for produce, where temporary warehouses have been erected.

The commerce of this river now is extensive, and increasing with a rapidity, known only in the rich, agricultural regions of the western states. Several steamboats are constantly employed in its trade, and many others make occasional trips. About thirty-five different boats passed and landed at Beardstown in 1836, making the arrivals and departures 450.

The following account of arrivals of steamboats at Naples, from 1828 to 1831, will show the increase during those years.

1828, the first year of steamboat navigation: 9 arrivals
1829: 3 arrivals
1830: 24 "
1831: 186 " 1832, from March 4, to June 19, 108 arrivals by nineteen different boats.

Illinois Town, a small village of a dozen families, in St. Clair county, on Cahokia creek, opposite St. Louis.

Illiopolis, a town site, laid off on a magnificent scale in Sangamon county, twenty-two miles east of Springfield, on the road to Decatur. It is a handsome elevated site in the prairie.

Indian Creek, a branch of Fox river from the northwest. It enters the main stream ten miles above Ottawa, and five miles above the rapids. Large bodies of fine timber lie on this stream; the surface of the country is undulating, and the soil good. On the 20th of May, 1832, fifteen persons belonging to the families of Messrs. Hall, Daviess, and Pettigrew were barbarously massacred by the Indians near this creek. Two young ladies, Misses Halls, were taken prisoners, and afterwards redeemed, and two young lads made their escape. The bodies of men, women, and children were shockingly mutilated, the houses of the settlers burned, their furniture destroyed, and their cattle killed—all in day light, and within twenty miles of a large force of the militia! This was done by the Indians under the infamous Black Hawk! A portion of that band were exterminated during the same season by the combined forces of United States troops and Illinois militia, and the remainder dispersed over the prairies west of the Mississippi. Settlements are now rapidly forming on Indian creek and Fox river, and much excellent country remains to be possessed in that quarter.

Indian Creek, a stream in Morgan county, near the borders of Sangamon, runs a westerly course, passes through a string of Lakes in the Illinois bottom, until its waters mingle with the Illinois, near the corner of the base line and the fourth principal meridian. It passes through a beautiful and fertile country, diversified with timber and prairie. The French explorers called it La Ballance.

Indian Creek, in Lawrence county, rises in the prairies west, runs southeast, and enters the Embarras five miles below Lawrenceville. It has much good land in its vicinity, both timber and prairie, and a settlement of 150 families.

Indian Creek, a small stream in Madison county, between Edwardsville and Alton, that enters Cahokia creek.

Indian Creek, a small stream and post office in Gallatin county 11 miles northwest from Equality.

Indian Creek a branch of the Des Plaines, rises in Mc Henry county, runs southeasterly, and enters the Des Plaines in Cook county. The land along its course very excellent.

Indian Creek, a small stream that rises in the east part of Sangamon county, and enters the Sangamon river above Salt creek. The timber adjoining is excellent, and the prairie is undulating and rich.

Indian Creek a small stream in the northern part of Bond county. It runs west and enters Shoal creek.

Indian Creek a name of one of the forks of Spoon river. It rises in Henry county, runs across the northeast corner of Knox, and enters Spoon-river in twelve north, six east.

Indian Creek, in Coles county, and a branch of the Embarras. It rises in the Grand prairie, runs southeast, and enters the principal stream eight miles below Charleston. The land is good, both timber and prairie, and the population forty or fifty families.

Indian Prairie, in Wayne county lies ten miles northwesterly from Fairfield; surface level, soil of an inferior quality, with a scattering settlement of fifteen or twenty families.

Inlet Grove, in Ogle county, lies on the road from Dixonville to Chicago, 16 miles from the former place. The inlet is a stream that rises near the heads of the south fork of the Kishwaukee, runs a southwestern course for 50 miles, part of that distance through swamps, until it is lost in the Winnebago swamp.

Irish Grove, in Sangamon county, on the road from Springfield to Peoria, eighteen miles from the former place. It is two miles from Salt creek, and is three miles long and one mile and a half wide, and contains a settlement of about fifty families. The land is good, and the timber is chiefly oak of various kinds.

Irish Settlement in Randolph county, six miles northeast of Kaskaskia, on Plum Creek.

Irish Settlement, on the Ohio river, in Pope county, about fifteen miles above Golconda, is on a rich alluvial soil, and contains about one hundred families.

Iroquois, a town site and post office, on the south side of the Iroquois river, in Iroquois county, in twenty-seven north, eleven west. It has 3 stores, 2 groceries, 1 tavern and twenty families. Montgomery joins it.

Iroquois {Riviere des Iroquois, Fr.) a considerable river which rises in the northwestern part of Indiana, and taking a northwest course, flows into the Kankakee river, and thus forms one of the heads of the Illinois. It received its name from the circumstance of a large party of the Iroquois Indians being surprised and massacred on its banks by the Illinois nation.* [*Charlevoix] The Kickapoos called it Mocabella. Others have called it Canawaga. It is probably the same stream that the Commissioners for settling the boundary between Illinois and Indiana called Picket-minck. It crosses the boundary line in township twenty-seven north, where its width is 175 links. The country through which it passes will soon be covered with settlements, the surface being fine and undulating, the soil rather inclined to sand, dry and rich, and the timber abundant. Sugar creek is a principal branch.

Iroquois City, a town site laid out in Iroquois county, on section twenty-five, township twenty-seven north, range twelve west, but contains no houses.

Irvin's Settlement lies in the western part of Hamilton county. The surface is undulating, the soil second rate, and timbered.

Island Grove, a large body of excellent timber, surrounded with rich prairie, in Sangamon county, sixteen miles west of Springfield, and on the road to Jacksonville.

Island Grove, a body of timber near the west side of Montgomery county, containing about 600 acres.

Jackson's Grove, a post office in Fulton county, on the road from Lewistown to Canton equidistant from the two places. Here is a considerable tract of barrens.

Jackson Grove, in Will county, six miles south of Juliet.

JACKSONVILLE is one of the largest inland towns in the state, and the seat of justice for Morgan county. It is situated on elevated ground, in the midst of a most delightful prairie, on sections twenty and twenty-one, township fifteen north, in range ten west of the third principal meridian. The plat of this town was laid off in 1825, but its rapid growth did not commence in three or four years. Few towns exhibit a finer prospect than does Jacksonville, from whatever side the traveller approaches. The surrounding prairie country, now in a state of cultivation is beautifully undulating, and uncommonly rich. The timber in sight is either in groves, or spread along the waters of the Mauvaiseterre and Sandy. Jacksonville has 16 stores, 6 groceries, 2 druggist's shops 2 taverns or hotels, several respectable boarding houses, 1 baker, 2 saddlers, 3 hatters, 1 silversmith, 1 watchmaker, 2 tinners, 3 cabinet makers, 1 machinist, 1 house and sign painter, 6 tailors, 2 cordwainers, 4 blacksmiths, 3 chair makers, 1 coach maker, 1 wagon maker, 1 wheelwright, 11 lawyers and 10 physicians. It has 1 steam flour and 1 saw mill, a manufactory for cotton yarn, a distillery, 2 oil mills, two carding factories a tannery, and 3 brick yards, with a proportion of various mechanics in the building line, and other trades. The public buildings are, a spacious court house, of brick, a neat framed building for the Presbyterian house of worship, a large brick building for the Methodist society, and a handsome edifice, also of brick, for the Episcopalian denomination, another of wood for Congregationalists, a lyceum, a mechanics' association, a male and a female academy, a brick market house, and a county jail. The college edifices are one mile west from the town. There are two printing offices that publish weekly papers, the "Patriot" and the "News" and also a book and job printing office, with a book bindery attached, and a monthly religious periodical. The present population of Jacksonville is about 2,500; exclusive of the college students. Situated near the centre of the county, and in the midst of one of the finest tracts of land, densely populated with industrious and enterprising farmers, with the advantages of good water, health, and good society, Jacksonville must continue to prosper, and doubtless will attract many emigrants who are seeking an agreeable home in the "far west." The railroads projected and now working from this place to the Illinois river, have been noticed under the head of "Internal Improvements."

Jacksonville, a settlement in St. Clair county, on the bluffs, eight miles northwest from Belleville.

Jarvis's Settlement is near the head of Ellison, in Warren county. Here are about two townships of valuable timber, surrounded with immense tracts of fertile prairie.

Jersey Prairie is a beautiful and rich prairie, in Morgan county, ten miles northerly from Jacksonville. The land is rich, timber adjoining excellent, the people moral and industrious, the settlement extensive and populous, and decidedly healthy.

Jerseyville, a town site and post office in Greene county, fourteen miles south of Carrollton; a beautiful situation in the prairie, containing twenty or twenty-five families.

Job's Creek is a small stream in part of Cass county, runs north, and passes through several small lakes into Sangamon river.

Job's Settlement, called also New Hope, in the northwest part of McDonough county, in townships six and seven north, range four west. The timbered land in the several forks of Crooked creek, and the intervening tracts of prairie, are all of first rate quality. Houston's, Bagby's, and Dicken's forks, are small streams north of Job's fork, and are heads of Crooked creek.

Johnson's Creek, a small stream in the south part of Jo Daviess county. Its head is towards Rock river, its course west, and it enters the Mississippi, thirteen miles above the Marais d'Ogee, and twenty-five miles below Plum river. The land towards its mouth is low and marshy; towards its head it is gently undulating, occasional groves of timber, and well adapted to farming.

Johnson's Settlement, on Sugar creek, in Clinton county, twenty miles south of west from Carlyle.

Jonathan's Creek is a tributary of the Kaskaskia, in Shelby county.

JONESBORO', the seat of justice for Union county, is situated on section thirty, twelve south, one west, in a high, rolling tract of country, nine miles from the Mississippi, twenty-five miles south-southeast from Brownsville, in latitude thirty-seven degrees, twenty-five minutes north. It has about twenty-five families, seven stores, one tavern, one lawyer, two physicians, two ministers of the gospel, one carding machine, and various mechanics. The court house is a framed building, two stories high, and finished; and a brick jail. The surrounding country is undulating and healthy, and contains several good settlements.

Jones's Creek post office. (See Liberty, Randolph county.)

Jordan Creek rises in the interior of Wabash county, and enters Bon Pas creek near the northwestern comer of the county. It passes through a fertile tract, both timbered and prairie, and has a considerable settlement ten or twelve miles northwest from Mount Carmel.

Jordan's Prairie, in Jefferson county, six miles north. of Mount Vernon, is five miles long, and one mile and a half wide. The land is second rate, and the settlement contains about fifty families.

Jordan's Prairie post office is on section thirteen, one south, two east, eight and a half miles north of Mount Vernon.

Jordan's Settlement, in Jasper county, on the west side of the Embarras river. In the centre of this settlement. is the contemplated county seat.

JULIETT, the seat of justice for Will county, located on both sides of the Des Plaines, and at the crossing place of the Illinois and Michigan canal. It has fourteen stores, two groceries, one drug store, three taverns, a saw and grist mill, and the benefit of great water power, various mechanics, six lawyers, five physicians, a Methodist and an Episcopal society, and about 600 inhabitants. This should have been called Joliet, from one of the earliest French explorers.

Kane Post Office, in Macoupin settlement, Greene county, nine miles south of Carrollton.

Kankakee, one of the principal streams that form the Illinois river. It rises in the northern part of Indiana, near the south bend of the St. Joseph's river, runs a westerly course into Illinois, where it receives the Iroquois, and forms a junction with the Des Plaines, in section thirty-five, township thirty-four north, and in range eight east from the third principal meridian. Here is a large body of fine timber, but along the Kankakee there is very little timber. It runs swiftly, and has a lime stone bed. At the ford of the Vincennes and Chicago road it is two-hundred yards wide. This is 178 miles north of Vincennes, and forty-seven miles south of Chicago. The prairie country through wliich it passes is generally of good soil, gently undulating, and interspersed with sand ridges. Navigation for small craft can be effected through the Kankakee and St. Joseph. This river was discovered by the French at a very early period, and was one of the principal routes to the Illinois country. Its aboriginal name was Theakiki, or as pronounced in French, Te-au-kee-kee, which by the fatality attendant upon many of the aboriginal names carried through French into English, has become fixed in the sound and orthography of Kan-ka-kee.

Kankakee, a town site in the forks of the Kankakee and Des Plaines rivers, with one store and three or four houses, saw mills, &c. Near the point the land is overflowed at high water. Further back is fine bottom and rolling prairie. Calculations are made for a city here at some future time.

KASKASKIA, the seat of justice for Randolph county, and formerly the seat of government of the Territory of Illinois, It is situated on the right bank of the Kaskaskia river, seven miles above its junction with the Mississippi. The early French explorers made one of their first settlements at this spot, shortly after the visit of La Salle, in 1683; and so long as the French continued in possession of the Illinois country, Kaskaskia was its capital, and was flourishing and populous. In 1721, when Charlevoix visited it, there existed a Jesuit college. Its ruins are now scarcely visible. In 1763, when the country east of the Mississippi was ceded by France to Great Britain, it contained about one hundred families. Of late years its population and trade has been much reduced. It numbers now about fifty or sixty families, a majority of whom are French. The court house is of brick. A Roman Catholic chapel, and a nunnery and female boarding school are here. Kaskaskia is the location of the land office for this district.

Kaskaskia River, a large and navigable stream. It rises in Champaign county, in township twenty north, range eight east, near the waters of the Sangamon and the Vermilion of the Wabash, and running in a southwestern direciion through Coles, Shelby, Fayette, Clinton, St. Clair, and Randolph counties, enters the Mississippi, in sections fourteen and fifteen, nine south, seven west, about 120 miles above the month of the Ohio. It is four hundred miles in length., following its meanderings, and receives a large number of tributaries, which are noticed under their respective names. An extensive body of timber from two to ten miles wide, is found along this stream, generally of a good quality, consisting of oaks of various kinds, as overcup, burr, water, white, black, red or Spanish, and post oak, walnut, hickory, ash, hackberry, elm, white and sugar maple, honey locust, cotton wood, sycamore, pecaun, mulberry, sassafras, box elder, etc. The country through which it passes is undulating, and fertile, adapted to the arowth of corn, wheat, oats, tobacco, and some cotton. The latter is not a sure crop in all seasons; but with proper care, a sufficient quantity may be raised for home consumption. The bottoms of this stream are from half a mile to two or three miles in width, and subject to inundation in high floods. The legislature in its system of internal improvement, appropriated $50,000 to improve the navigation of Kaskaskia river. The chief obstructions are logs, sand banks and short bends. A steamboat went up as far as Carlyle in April, 1837.

Kellogg's Grove, in Jo Daviess county, thirty-five miles east-southeast from Galena, and on the road from Dixon's ferry. It is a small grove of three or four hundred acres, with several small groves near it.

Kellogg's Grove, a small tract of timber in La Salle county seventeen miles northeast from Ottawa.

Keltner's Fork, in Morgan county, is a small branch of Indian creek. It rises near Jersey prairie.

Keys' Creek rises in the interior of Pike county, and enters the Snycartee slough. The bottom is excellent land proportioned into timber and prairie. About the bluffs very uneven, towards the head of the creek mode rately undulating.

Kickapoo, a stream that rises near Spoon river in two forks denominated East and West forks. East Fork rises in sections eleven and twelve, eleven north, seven east, runs a southwestern course. West Fork rises in ten north, four east, runs a southeasterly course and unites with the east fork in section thirty-four, ten north, six east. The Kickapoo then takes a southern course, and enters the Illinois river two miles below Peoria. On the forks there is much excellent land, with groves and points of timber, interspersed with barrens. The country bordering on the main creek has considerable bodies of fine timber, but the land is generally too uneven for convenient cultivation.

Kickapoo, a branch of Salt creek in Sangamon county. It rises in Dawson's grove, McLean county, in twenty-three north, four east, runs a southern course and enters Salt creek in Sangamon county, in the north part of nineteen north, three west. It furnishes good mill seats, when the water is not too low; and the soil and timber on each side of the creek are first rate.

Kincaid Creek, is a small branch of Big Muddy river, which heads in Randolph county, runs southeast, and enters that stream twenty-four miles from its mouth. The land along this creek is rocky, broken, heavily timbered with poplar, oak, etc. and the settlement is small.

Kinsawl's Settlement, near the northern side of Gallatin county, on the road from Carmi to Equality. The land is rather inferior, and the settlement considerable.

Kishwaukee or Sycamore, a branch of Rock river. It is divided into North, East and South forks, and these again have numerous branches. The branches of North Fork head in Winnebago, Boone and northwest corner of McHenry counties, and in the Wisconsin Territory, of which the Beaver, Piskasau and Pappoose creeks are best known. The East Fork has several heads in the northern parts of Kane county. The South Fork originates in several heads in the interior of Kane, and southeastern corner of Ogle counties. One of its heads is near the Paupau grove. The East and South Forks unite in township forty-one north, range three east, where is a large body of timber, twelve sections or more of various kinds, and the prairies adjoining undulating and rich. Along the East Fork the prairie is flat and rather wet. Ohio, Norwegian and Big groves are found in this region. The North and South Forks unite in township forty-three north, range two east, and the main Kishwankee enters Rock river on section twenty-two, township forty-three north range one east, of the third meridian. Ine country in general has an undulating surface, a rich, deep, black/sandy, calcareous soil, and abounds with lime and free stone, coal, and fine perennial springs, while the different streams produce good mill sites. There is a deficiency of timber as there is through the northern part of Illinois. Much of it is in groves, many of which equal in appearance English parks. There are also extensive tracts of barrens or oak openings, as they are called by the people, and the whole country gives most unequivocal promise of health.

Kite river, in Ogle county, rises in the prairie north of Paupau grove, runs a west-southwest course and enters Rock river one and a half rniles, below Oregon. Soil rich and sandy, limber scattering, surface tolerably level. Besides other timber, here is yellow and white poplar, or aspin.

Knight's Prairie lies west of McLeansboro', in Hamilton county, with a settlement around it.

Knob Prairie, fifteen miles northwest trom Frankfort, in the corner of Franklin county, is low and wet, and has a small settlement.

KNOXVILLE is the county seat of Knox county, and is pleasantly situated on an elevated and rich prairie on the north side, and adjoining the timber of Haw creek. It is on section twenty-eight, eleven north, and two east of the fourth principal meridian. It was laid off about 1832, contains now 40 families and bids fair to become a thriving inland town. The surrounding country is rich, and settling fast with industrious farmers.

Knobs Grove, in the northeastern part of Putnam and extends into La Salle and Ogle counties. It is at the head waters of the Bureau.

Knox Settlement, in Putnam county, on Sandy, thirteen miles southeast from Hennepin, is a large and flourishing settlement.

Lacon, (formerly Columbia) is on the left bank of the Illinois river in Putnam county, 20 miles below Hennepin surrounded with a populous and rich settlement. It has 3 stores and 15 or 20 families.

La Fox, a post office on Fox river in Kane county, near the Big Woods.

La Harpe, a town and post office in Hancock county, in seven north, five west, with a beautiful country, interspersed with timber and prairie around it.

Lake Fork, a main branch of Macoupin creek, which rises in the prairie between the heads of Shoal creek, and Sangamon waters, and near Macoupin point, which see. Below the point it passes through a small lake, or pond.

Lake Fork, a branch of Shoal creek, that rises in seven north, five west, runs a northeastern direction, and enters the west fork of Shoal creek in Montgomery county.

Lake Fork of Salt Creek is formed by a long lake in the northeastern part of Sangamon county, runs a north course and forms one of the heads of Salt creek. It is in township seventeen north, and range two and three west.

Lake Joliet is an expansion of the River Des Plaines, two miles below Mount Joliet, and opposite Mount Flat Head, in Will county. It is about five miles long, 60 or 70 rods wide, and deep water.
La Marche, a small stream and branch of the Kickapoo in Peoria county. Excellent land and a fine body of timber, especially near its mouth.

Lamaster's Settlement is in Schuyler county, on Crane creek four miles south of Rushville.

Lamotte Creek rises in the interior of Crawford county, runs east and enters the Wabash below Palestine.

Lamotte Prairie is a sandy and rich tract of prairie, in Crawford county, eight miles long, and from one to five miles broad. The soil is well adapted to the growth of corn.

La Salle Prairie, a prairie and large settlement in Peoria county, adjoining Peoria lake. The southern part is sandy, rich and undulating; the northern portion is a mixture of clay and sand, elevated in the middle. La Salle prairie is an elevated bottom, above the highest floods, ten miles long, and from three to four miles wide. At the shore of the lake the water is deep, and the landing good. The settlement contains about 100 families and is fifteen miles distant from the county seat.

Laughton's, an old trading house and settlement on the Des Plaines, in Cook county, twelve miles west of Chicago.

LAWRENCEVILLE, the county seat of Lawrence county. It is situated on the west bank of the Embarras river, nine miles from Vincennes, on the St. Louis road, and on an elevated ridge. It contains three stores, two groceries, two taverns, and sixty or seventy families. The court house is of brick, and is a respectable building. A saw and grist mill is on the Embarras, adjoining. Its exports per annum $50,000; imports $30,000.

Leaf River, in Ogle county, rises in North Grove, near the source of Pine creek, runs east about 12 miles, and enters Rock river four or five miles below Stillman's run. It has several branches of four or five miles in length, fine groves of timber, and rich, calcareous soil on its borders.

Lebanon, a beautifully situated village in St. Clair county, twelve miles northeast from Belleville, and one mile east of Silver creek. It is on elevated ground, surrounded with a beautiful, populous and well cultivated district of country and on the Vincennes and St Louis stage road. Lebanon has a steam mill for manufacturing grain—an ox mill for flouring, on an inclined plane, a post office, two public houses, seven stores, one grocery, three physicians, mechanics' shops of various kinds, and about sixty families. The Methodist college, located in the immediate vicinity of Lebanon, has been noticed under the head of "EDUCATION" in the first part of this work. The Methodist society embraces the largest proportion of the religious community about Lebanon. There is a large society of the Methodist Episcopal church, and a small society of the Methodist Protestant church.

Leesburgh, a town site in Montgomery county on sections seven and eight, township ten north, five west.

Lemarde Prairie, in Wayne county, seven miles northwest from Fairfield, about six miles long, and three wide, of inferior quality, with a small population.

Lester's Point, in Iroquois county in twenty seven north, eleven west;—a point of timber, surrounded with a rich, undulating prairie.

Lewis's Creek, a trifling stream in Jackson county, enters Big Muddy near the coal bank four miles east of Brownsville.

Lewis's Settlement, in the southern part of Pope county, above and opposite the mouth of Cumberland fiver. This is the oldest settlement in this part of the state, and contains sixty or seventy families.

LEWISTOWN, ths seat of justice for Fulton county, situated on section twenty-two, five north, three east, four miles east of Spoon river, and twelve miles from the Illinois. It has three stores, two taverns, a framed court house, painted white, and about forty families. Lewistown is surrounded with a heavy body of timber, chiefly of white and other oaks; the soil rather thin, and surface broken.

Lexington, a town site in the north part of McLean county, eighteen miles northeast of Bloomington, on the road to Chicago.

Liberty, a town and post office in Adams county, near Weigle's setlement.

Liberty a town site on the Mississippi, in Randolph county, on section seven, township eight south, five west. It has a steam saw and flouring mill, six stores, three groceries, two taverns, one minister, two physicians and 140 inhabitants. One house for public worship.

Lick Creek, a branch of Sugar creek, of Sangamon county. It rises on the western side of the county, takes an easterly course through a rich and populous tract, with good timber, and enters Sugar creek a short distance above its mouth. The settlements extend us whole length, and the borders of the prairie adjoining are well populated.

Lick Run is a branch of Indian creek, in Morgan county near the bluffs of the Illinois.

Lima, a town site and post office in Adams county, 18 miles north of Quincy, and has eight or ten families.

Paine's Grove is in Ogle county on Kite creek.

Lincoln, a post office and town site in Macoupin county, near the head of Wood river, and on the road from Edvvardsville to Springfield. It is thought to be an eligible situation, and will soon be surrounded by a large settlement.

Linden Bottom, in Greene county, south of the Macoupin called also the "Richwoods." It is a fine tract of timbered land, elevated and rich, yetin appearance its surface resembles alluvion. It has a large settlement extending from the Macoupin river to Otter creek.

Linden Grove, a small body of excellent timber in the northeast part of Morgan county, surrounded with rich, undulating prairie.

Lisbon, a post office and town site at Holderman's grove, in La Salle county, sixteen miles northeast from Ottawa.

Little Beaucoup Creek, a small stream in Perry county, and a branch of Big beaucoup creek, between that stream and Little Muddy.

Little Crooked Creek rises in Washington county, near Nashville, runs a north course, and enters Crooked creek near its mouth. Land good, surface undulating, and a mixture of timber and prairie.

Little Detroit is the French name for the "Strait" or narrows in Peoria Lake.

Little Indian Creek, in Morgan county, rises in feilvan grove, runs southwest, and enters Indian creek.

Little Mackinau is a stream in Tazewell county, that runs westward, antl enters the Mackinau. The settlement here is extensive.

Little Missouri Creek, a branch of Crooked creek, in the western part of Schuyler county and eastern part of Adams county, twelve miles from Rushville. Green's settlement is on the southern, and Brown's Settlement on the northern side of this creek. The country is a mixture of timber and prairie.

Little Mount Prairie is in Wayne county, three miles southwest from Fairfield, about two miles long, and one wide. Here is a small but high mound, covered over with the graves of the aboriginal people.

Little Muddy is one of the four heads of the Big Muddy river. It rises in the southeastern corner of Washington county, crosses the line into Jefferson, then into Franklin and finally into Jackson, where it enters the parent stream on the right side, in section thirteen, eight south, one west. A post office. It has good timber and prairie on both sides.

Little Piasau, called also Cave Spring branch, rises in a large spring among the bluffs of Lower Alton, and passes through the town into the Mississippi.

Little Rock River, rises in Jo Daviess county, runs south into Whiteside county and enters Rock river in township nineteen north, four east. There is much good land along its course.

Little Rock Creek rises in the interior of Kane county, and runs south into Fox river.

Little Saline, in Gallatin coutny, rises in the bluffs of the Ohio river, runs a north course, and enters the South fork of the Saline creek, eighteen miles above Equality. It waters a tolerably good country, with a scattering population.

Little Sandy, a small creek that heads in Sweet's prairie, in the south part of Morgan county; and enters Sandy creek, about the bluffs of the Illinois. A large tract of timbered laud is on it.

Little Silver Creek rises in the Looking Glass prairie, in the northeastern part of St. Clair county, runs southwest past Lebanon, and enters Silver creek two miles below that village.

Little Vermilion rises in the prairies west of Fox river, runs south, and enters the Illinois near the foot of the rapids. Just below is the termination of the canal, and the site of a great commercial town. Its Indian name is Pe-cum-sauk-in, or Tomahawk.

Little Wabash River rises in township eleven north, range six east, in the large prairies towards the head waters of the Kaskaskia, and running south through the counties of Coles, Effingham, Clay, Wayne, Edwards, and White, enters the Big Wabash, in the northeast corner of Gallatin county, seven south, ten east. It is about one hundred and ten miles in a direct line from its heads to its mouth, though about one hundred,and fifty miles to follow its meanderings. Its principal tributaries are Skillet fork, Fox, and Muddy. It is navigable for flat boats and small craft, at a full stage of water—about forty of the former leaving it annually, from Wayne and White counties, with beef, pork, corn, cattle, and some tobacco, for the New Orleans market. The timber upon the banks of the Little Wabash is generally heavy, and of a good quality, and is several miles in width. In Clay county is some poplar. The country adjoining is generally fertile, but the bottoms are subject to inundation at high floods. The country between the Little Wabash and the Skillet fork, is generally flat, and in some places inclined to be wet. Several valuable mills have been erected on this stream in White county.

Little Woods is a tract of timber on Fox river, in Kane county above the "Big Woods." The land of excellent quality, but swampy in places.

Liverpool, a town site on the right bank of the Illinois river, in Fulton county, six miles above the mouth of Spoon river. The site has been called Bailey's Island, from being surrounded in the rear by a slough at high water, over which a causeway or levee is about to be constructed. It is the landing place for Canton, and the termination of the Liverpool, Canton and Knoxville rail road.

Livingston, a village on the national road, in Clark county. It is in the timber of Big creek, fourteen miles from Terre Haute, in Indiana and ten miles west of north from Darwin. It has three stores, three groceries, three taverns, one physician, two ministers, various mechanics, and 150 inhabitants.

Lockport, a town site on the Illinois and Michigan canal, at the termination of the lake level, thirty-four and a half miles from Chicago. Here will be two locks established, each ten feet lift, which will give twenty feet fall for the immense quantity of surplus water that can be brought from Lake Michigan, equal to 10,000 cubic feet of surplus water per minute, after supplying the canal, and making full allowance for leakage, evaporation, &c, enough to drive 234 pairs of mill stones, four and a half feet diameter. A large town and extensive manufacturing operations will be here as soon as the canal is completed. Near this place the Des Plaines has fifteen feet fall.

Lockwood's Settlement, near the south fork of Spoon river, on the border of Warren county, township ten north, range one west. An excellent tract of country.

Lockwood's Settlement is in the south part of Hamilton county. The surface is rolling, timbered, and the soil second rate.

Locust Creek, a branch of Elkhorn creek, in Washington county, and has a settlement on it three miles sonth of Nashville; country chiefly prairie.

Locust Grove, a post office and settlement in Shelby county, five miles east of Shelbyville.

Logan's Settlement is in a good tract of country, in Gallatin county, eighteen miles northwest from Shawneetown.

Lollard's Settlement is ten miles northwest from Shawneetown, in Gallatin county, and contains much good land.

Long Creeks a branch of Big creek, in Macon county.

Long Grove lies west of Au Sable grove, in the eastern part of La Salle county.

Long Prairie, thirteen miles northwest from Mount Carmel, in Wabash county, is undulating, second rate land, with twenty-five or thirty families.

Long Prairie, in Edwards county, north of Albion, nine miles long, and from one mile to one and a half wide, interspersed with groves and points of timber.

Long Prairie, a branch of the Twelve Mile prairie of Clay county, projecting into Wayne. It is eight or ten miles long, three miles wide, level, poor soil, and has a population of twenty-five or thirty families.

Long Prairie, in Jefferson county, five miles west of Mount Vernon, is four miles long, and one mile and a half wide. It lies between the Middle and West forks of Big Muddy river, is tolerably good land, and contains a settlement of forty families.

Looking Glass Prairie, a large, rich, beautiful, and undulating prairie lying between Silver and Sugar creeks, and on the eastern border of St. Clair county. It commences near the base line, in range six west, and extends northward about twenty miles into Madison county, and is from six to ten miles in width. Few prairies in the state present more eligible situations for farms than this. Extensive settlements are on its borders, and project into its interior.

Lorton's Prairie, on the north side of Apple creek, in the upper part of Greene county. It is a tract of excellent land, has good limber, and contains about eighty families.

Lost Creek, in Marion county, rises in the Grand prairie, runs southwest, and enters the Kaskaskia river, near the mouth of Crooked creek.

Lost Grove is seven miles east of Sidney, on the eastern border of Champaign county.

Lost Prairie, in Perry county, seven miles west of Pinckneyville, is three miles long, and one mile and a half wide. It has a rich soil, high undulating surface, and a good settlement. There are two prairies between this and Pinckneyville, called Eaton and Conant prairies.

Loup Creek, an insignificant branch of Silver creek, in St. Clair county, in township one south, range seven west.

Luken's Prairie is on the south side of Lawrence county, with a settlement of fifty or sixty families.

Lush's Creek, a small stream, running southwardly through Pope county, and entering the Ohio at Golconda.

Lynn Grove, in Champaign county, is four miles south of Sidney, from seventy-five to one hundred acres of timber, mostly linden and honey locust.

Lynnville, a town site and post office in Morgan county, and a point on the rail road from Jacksonville, by Winchester to the Illinois river. It has three stores, three groceries, and fifteen or twenty families. It is in the prairie at the head of Walnut creek, in an English settlement, and eight miles southwest from Jacksonville.

Lyons, is a town site on the Des Plaines at Laughton's old trading house, twelve miles west of Chicago. It now has a sawmill, three houses and a tavern.

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