A Gazetteer of Illinois; in Three Parts
BY J. M. Peck
CHICAGO, the seat of justice for Cook county, is situated on a river or bay of the same name, at the junction of North and South branches, and from thence to lake Michigan. The town is beautifully situated on level ground, but sufficiently elevated above the highest floods, and on both sides of the river.
Its growth, even for western cities, has been of unparalleled rapidity. In 1832 it contained five small stores, and 250 inhabitants. In 1831, there were four arrivals from the lower lakes, two brigs and two schooners, which was sufficient for all the trade of the northeastern part of Illinois, and the northwestern part of Indiana. In 1835 there were about 267 arrivals of brigs, ships and schooners, and 9 of steamboats, and brought 5015 tons of merchandise and 9400 barrels of salt. The value of merchandise imported equal to two and a half millions of dollars, besides a vast number of emigrant families, with their furniture, provisions, &c. Owing to the vast influx of emigration, the exports have been but small. There are about 60 stores, 30 groceries, 10 public houses, 23 physicians, 41 lawyers, five ministers and about 5000 inhabitants.
The Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists, Episcopalians, and Roman Catholics, each have houses of worship. The harbor constructed by the United States government is now nearly completed and will afford one of the safest and best on the northern lakes.
Chicago is now an incorporated city, under the usual municipal regulations. It has one or more insurance companies, fire companies, water works for the supply of the city from the lake, several good schools and a respectable academy, three printing offices that publish weekly papers and mechanics of every description.
The natural position of the place, the enterprise and capital that will concentrate here, with favorable prospects for health, must soon make this place the emporium of trade and business for all the northern country.
Back of the town, towards the Des Plaines, is a fertile prairie, and for the first three or four miles, elevated and dry.
Along the north branch of the Chicago, and the lake shore, are extensive bodies of fine timeber. Large quantities of white pine exist in the regions towards Green bay, and about Grand river in Michigan, from which lumber in any quantities is obtained and conveyed by shipping to Chicago. Yellow poplar boards and plank are brought across the lake from the St. Joseph's river.
The mail in post coaches from Detroit, arrives here tri-weekly, and departs for Galena, for Springfield, Alton, and St. Louis, and for Danville and Vincennes.
The United States owns a strip of elevated ground between the town and lake, about half a mile in width, on which Fort Dearborn and the lighthouse are situated, but which is now claimed, as a pre-emption right, and is now a course of judicial investigation.
Chicago, the stream or bay, on which the town of Chicago is situated. It is made by North and South branches, which form a junction in the upper part of the town, about three fourths of a mile from the lake. The Chicago resembles a vast canal, from fifty to seventy-five yards wide and from fifteen to twenty-five deep. Northerly and easterly storms throw the cool waters of the lake into this channel, and raise it about three feet.
North Branch, which is the largest, rises a short distance above the boundary line, and near lake, and runs parallel with the lake shore a southerly course, and is navigable for small boats. Its banks are well timbered, and the land fertile. In spring floods, its waters, in one or two places, flow across the prairie and commingle with those of Des Plaines.
South Branch rises in an opposite direction, in the prairies towards the Saganaskee swamp, runs a northern direction about twenty miles, and forms a junction with the North branch, in the town of Chicago. The timber is rather scarce on South branch.
Chillicothe, a town site and 20 or 30 families, in Peoria county at the upper end of Peoria lake.
Chippewa, a town site in Madison county, directly opposite the mouth of the Missouri. A steam mill and several buildings are going up.
Chateau's Island, is in the Mississippi river, in the southwestern part of Madison county. It is four miles long, and a mile and a half wide, and has several families and farms on it. In extreme high floods the water of the river nearly covers it.
Christian Settlement, see Allison's Prairie.
Christy's Prairie, sometimes called Lewis's Prairie, is in Lawrence county ten miles west of Lawrenceville, moderately rolling, and good second rate land. Population 150 families.
Clary's Grove is a beautiful tract of timber and flourishing settlement, in Sangamon county, eighteen miles northwest from Springfield, and surrounded with excellent prairie. The timber is three or four miles in diameter, consisting of oaks, sugar maple, walnut, hickory, linden, elm, locust, and various other species. Clary's creek issues from this grove, runs northwesterly, and enters the Sangamon river near the corner of Morgan county. Little Grove is a smaller tract contiguous to Clary's Grove; timber and prairie of the same quality.
Clayton is a town site on the east side of Adams county, on section thirty-five, township one north, range five west.
Clay Creek rises in the prairies in the northeastern part of Morgan county, passes through two lakes in the bottom, and enters the Illinois river below Beardstown.
Clay Lick, a branch of Cedar creek, in Union county. The land is hilly, and heavily timbered.
Clay Prairie, in Clark county, lies west from Union Prairie, and eight miles southwest from Darwin. It contains a large settlement.
Clear Creek, a small stream that rises in the prairies near Paris, Edgar county, and leaving the county at its southeast corner, passes across a strip of Indiana, and enters the Wabash. It is a mill stream, and the land on each side is good.
Clear Creek, a small stream in Putnam county, ten miles south of Hennepin. Alongs its banks are fine timber, and the adjoining prairies are excellent.
Clear Creek, a stream that rises in Union county, runs south and enters the Mississippi in the northwestern part of Alexander county. One branch rises in the northern part of the Union, the other in the neighborhood of Jonesboro.
Clear Creek, in Sangamon county, rises in the prairies between Salt creek and the North Fork, runs a southwestern course, and enters the Sangamon river near the junction of the North and South Forks. This is a good mill stream; the country on its borders rather level, timber good, considerable prairie, and a population of 200 or 300 families.
Clear Creek, a small stream in Morgan county, that passes through the narrows and enters the Illinois river below Beardstown.
Clear Creek, post office, is at Mechanicsburg, 14 miles east of Springfield, and on the road to Decatur.
Clear Lake, an expansion of water in the American bottom, St. Clair county, about ten miles westerly from Belleville.
Clendening's Settlement, in Greene county, six miles southwest of Carrollton.
Clifton, a post office on Sugar creek, Clinton county.
Clifton, on the bank of the Mississippi, four miles above Alton. Here is a landing, a steam saw mill, an excellent free stone quarry, and a quarry of water cement lime stone, and a town site.
Clinton, a town site, post offices and half a dozen families, in the northern part of Macon county, 24 miles from Decatur.
Clinton Hill is three miles north of Belleville, in St. Clair county, and the residence of John Messenger, Esq. It is an elevated timbered tract, containing some excellent springs, and a valuable stone quarry. The Richland Baptist church have their house of worship here.
Clio, a post office in the northwest corner of Pike county, 22 miles northwest from Pittsfield.
Coal Banks, in the bluffs of St. Clair county, east side of the American bottom, and seven miles from St. Louis ferry. Several beds have been opened along the bluffs, within three miles. The coal is bituminous, burns well, and appears to be inexhaustible. About 300,000 bushels are now taken to St. Louis annually, and the demand for it is rapidly increasing.
Coal Creek, in Schuyler county, heads near Crane creek, runs east, and enters the Illinois, four miles above Beardstown.
Coal Creek, in the northwest part of Putnam county, 3 miles west of French grove, and runs into swamps. Here is coal in abundance and a beautiful grove of timber.
Cochran's Grove, a post office and settlement in Shelby county, ten miles east of Shelbyville.
Coffee Creek, an inconsiderable stream in Wabash county, that enters the Wabash river, six miles below Mount Carmel. A settlement of the same name is along its course. It is a timbered country, undulating, and broken.
Cold Prairie is in the American bottom, in St. Clair county, on the road from St. Louis to Belleville.
Cold Spring Settlement and post office is in Shelby county, on the road from Vandalia to Shelbyville, twelve miles south of the latter place. The land is second rate, and proportioned into timber and prairie. This was formerly called Wakefield's Settlement.
Collinsville, a village, post office, and settlement, in the south part of Madison county. Here is a store, a large mill for sawing and grinding, and several mechanics. A meeting house and Presbyterian church of fifty members, a large Sabbath school, and a body of sober, moral and industrious citizens, render this an interesting settlement.
Columbus, a town near the centre of Adams county, of 40 or 50 families.
Columbo Creek rises in Perry county, runs a southeast course, and enters Big Beaucoup, in Jackson county.
Columbus, a town site in Randolph county, near the Flat prairie, eighteen miles east of Kaskaskia, on section one, five south, six west. Here is an academy, a congregation of Reformed Presbyterians, and an industrious and large settlement. The post office is called "Shannon's Store."
Commerce, a town, landing and post office on the Mississippi, in Hancock county, 16 miles northwest of Carthage, and at the head of the Lower rapids, in seven north, one west. It has two stores, one grocery, and 12 or 15 families.
Compton's Prairie, in Wabash county, twelve miles west of Mount Carmel. This is a small, rich, level prairie, inclined to be wet, and has twenty-five or thirty families.
Concord, a post office and settlement, sometimes called "Slocumb's," in White county, between the Little and Big Wabash, below Big prairie.
Concord, a town site on the Iroquois river, opposite Iroquois town. It has a steam saw and grist mill, and two or three families.
Coon Creek, a branch of the North Fork of the Kishwaukee in Kane county. It rises in township forty north, range four east, and runs west.
Coonsville, a small creek and settlement, on the south side of Apple creek, in Greene county, and six miles northwest from Carrollton.
Coop's Creek, a branch of the Macoupin, in Macoupin county. It rises in the prairies towards the head of Cahokia creek, runs a northwesterly course, and enters the main stream below the forks. Timber and prairie, undulating and rich.
Copperas Creek, in Fulton county, towards the eastern part. It rises near Canton, runs a southeastern course, and enters the Illinois river in six north, five east. Much of it is a timbered tract; some good prairie, and a large settlement.
Cottonberger's Settlement, on Salt creek, in the northwest part of Macon county, eighteen miles north from Decatur.
Cotton Hill Prairie is in Sangamon county, between South Fork and Horse creek, twelve miles south of Springfield.
Court Creek runs through Knox county, from northwest to southeast, and enters Spoon river.
Covington was formerly the seat of justice of Washington county, but after its division in forming Clinton, this place was left in the northwest corner of the county, and now contains half a dozen families. It is situated on the left bank of the Kaskaskia river, in section thirty-three, township one north, three west. Should the contemplated improvements of the Kaskaskia river be carried forward so as to be navigated by steam, Covington may become a place of some importance. It is fourteen miles from Nashville.
Cownover's Branch, in Morgan county, rises at the head of Jersey prairie, and enters Indian creek near Smart's mill.
Cox's Grove, a small body of timber on the line of Cass and Sangamon counties.
Cox's Prairie, northeast of Brownsville, in Jackson county, near Big Beaucoup, contains about four sections of good rolling land.
Crab Orchard, a small creek that rises in the south part of Franklin county, passes into Jackson, and enters the Big Muddy, fifteen miles above Brownsville. The country adjoining is level and good, and the settlement has forty or fifty families.
Crawfish Creek, a small stream in Wabash county, that enters the Wabash river six miles above Mount Carmel. The adjacent country is sterile and broken.
Crawford's Creek is an insignificant stream in Adams county, containing excellent land and timber. It enters the south prong of Bear creek.
Crane Creek, a small stream in Schuyler county, which rises near Rushvilie, runs south through a timbered region,and enters the Illinois a few yards above the mouth of Crooked creek.
Crane Creek, a trifling stream that enters the Sangamon river from the north side, below Miller's ferry.
Crane Creek, in Whiteside county, rises near the south fork of Plum creek, runs west, then south, and enters Rock river fifteen or twenty miles below Dixon's ferry, near the foot of the second rapids. Its length is about twenty-five miles. The timber near it is in groves, and the country generally the finest for farming purposes. It is a good mill stream.
Crooked Creek, on the military tract, from its size,length, and number of its branches, should be called a river; but it is not our province to make or alter names. The term "creek" is applied to this stream on the maps, and in the vocabulary of the country. It rises in numerous branches in McDonough and Hancock counties, and near the borders of Warren, runs a southern course through McDonough and Schuyler counties, and enters the Illinois in section thirteen, one south, one west, six miles below Beardstown. It can easily be made navigable some distance. No better land can be found in Illinois than the country in general watered by this stream; and the many small tributaries emptying into it from the east and west not only afford many mill seats, but apportion the timber and prairie so nearly equal as to render almost every tract capable of immediate settlement. It is to be regretted, that much of the land in this section of the country is owned by non residents, and that it is held at prices much too high to suit the circumstances of settlers, or the relative value of land in this state. The country generally on Crooked creek is gently undulating, dry soil, inexhaustibly rich, and where timber exists it is of excellent quality. Here are found oaks of different species, walnut, sugar maple, linden, hackberry, hickory, cherry, honey locust, mulberry, elm, ash, and various other growth common to the state. The soil is an argillaceous mould, from one to four feet deep. Near the mouth of Crooked creek is an extensive bottom on the Illinois, inundated in high water, but affording an extensive range for stock during the greatest part of the year. Bituminous coal is found in great abundance along this stream and its tributaries, with several quarries of free stone.
Crooked Creek, in Marion county, rises in the Grand prairie near Salem, runs a southwesterly course, and enters the Kaskaskia river above Covington.
Crooked Creek, an insignificant stream and branch of the Little Wabash, in White county, eight miles above Carmi. It is a timbered region, and the settlement is large.
Crow Creek rises in the north part of McLean county, passes through the southwestern part of La Salle, and enters the Illinois river in Putnam county below Hennepin. There is a fine skirt of timber and much good prairie along its borders.
Crow Creek, a small stream in Putnam county that enters the Illinois river from the west side. It rises in Crow grove, (Boyd's) and runs an east course.
Crow Grove, or Boyd's settlement, forty miles above Peoria, on the stage road to Galena. It is a beautiful tract of country, in fourteen north, eight east from the fourth principal meridian, and thirteen miles west of Hennepin.
Crow Meadow post office is in Putnam county, on the road from Peoria to Ottawa.
Crow Prairie lies near the Illinois river, in Putnam county, on the east side, twelve miles below Hennepin. It is six miles long and three miles wide, good soil, and timber around it.
Crow Prairie is in Putnam county, on the west side of the Illinois river. It is twelve miles long, four miles wide, and dry, rich, farming land.
Cumberland, a post office on the National Road, 6 miles east of Vandalia.
Curran, a post office in Gallatin county, 13 miles northwest from Equality.
Cutler's Settlement, in Coles county, eight miles northeast from Charleston, on the east side of the Embarras. The soil, both of the timbered land and prairie, is good, and the settlement contains from forty to fifty families.
Cypress, a sluggish creek in Gallatin county, between Equality and Shawneetown, which runs into the Saline creek. The land in the vicinity is generally good and heavily timbered.
Crystal Lake, a beautiful sheet of water in McHenry county, with gravelly banks and a delightful prospect.
Dad Joe's Grove, so called from Joseph Smith, but more commonly known to the people, by the euphonious name of "Old Dad." It is in Putnam county, section four, eighteen north, nine east.
DANVILLE, the seat of justice for Vermilion county, is situated on the Vermilion river of the Wabash, on section eight, in township nineteen north, and in range eleven west from the second principal meridian. It is on a dry, sandy, and elevated surface, surrounded with heavy timber on the east, north, and west, but open to the prairie on the south. It has fourteen stores, three, groceries, three taverns, five lawyers, six physicians, various mechanics, a public land office for this district, and a printing office from which issues weekly the "Danville Enquirer", and 700 inhabitants. The Methodists, Baptists, and Presbyterians each have congregations. There are about 120 families. The country around is populous, and rich land.
DARWIN, the seat of justice of Clark county. It is situated on the Wabash, in section twenty-seven, ten north, eleven west from the second principal meridian, adjoining Walnut prairie, and contains about twenty families.
Daviston Post Office is at the place where the base line of the fourth principal meridian crosses the dividing line of Adams and Schuyler counties, twenty-five miles south of west from Rushville on the road to Quincy.
Dawson's Grove, called sometimes "Old Town Timber," in McLean county, twelve miles east from Bloomington, and at the heads of Kickapoo and Salt creek, in twenty-three north, and three and four east. The road from Pekin to Danville passes through this grove. It is long, and intersected with some barrens. Timber principally oak with some sugar maple. The prairie around it is very rich.
Dead Mail's Grove, in Coles county, six miles west of Charleston. It is almost circular, about two miles in diameter, and contains three or four sections of indifferent timber, surrounded with a rich and undulating prairie, and is monopolised by two or three families. It receives its name from the circumstance of a man perishing here with cold several years since. The old Kickapoo towns were adjoining this grove.
Deaton's Mill, one of the first settlements in Morgan county, on the Mauvaiseterre, three miles northwest from Jacksonville. Here is a steam mill and a large and flourishing settlement.
Deausix, a trifling stream, and branch of the Kaskaskia river, in the southeastern part of St. Clair county.
Decker's Prairie, a small tract of second rate, undulating land, in Wabash county, twelve miles northeast from Mount Carmel, with about twenty-five families.
DECATUR, the seat of justice for Macon county, is situated on the west side of the North Fork of Sangamon river, and on the borders of an extensive prairie. It is on the northeast quarter of section fifteen, in sixteen north, two east from the third principal meridian. It is dry, elevated, and bids fair for health. The country around is elevated, rich, and has a fine settlement. Decatur has three stores, several mechanics and about thirty families.
Delhi, a post office and town site in the south part of Greene county, 22 miles from Carrollton. It was formerly called "Lurton's".
Des Plaines River [Riviere des Plaines, Fr.] rises in the Wisconsin territory, a few miles above the boundary line of Illinois, and about six miles from lake Michigan. It runs a south course, generally over a bed of limestone rock, and forms one of the prominent branches of the Illinois river, by its junction with the Kankakee. Groves of timber are found on its banks, and interspersed through the vast prairie region. The country along its borders is rapidly populating, notwithstanding the apparent deficiency of timber. In many places along the Des Plaines rock may be easily obtained both for fencing and building. The country is well watered, the streams perennial, and the soil rich, and covered with luxuriant herbage. It is frequently written and pronounced Aux Plaines or O'Plane.
Devil's Anvil is a singular rock, of considerable elevation, and the top jutting over its base, near the road from Equality to Golconda. The surrounding country is very hilly, with rocky precipices, and exhibits all the desolation and wildness of a mountainous region.
Devil's Oven is a singular promontory of sand rock that projects into the Mississippi, in Jackson county, one mile above the Grand Tower. It has a cave resembling the month of a mammoth oven, to be seen from the river.
Diamond Grove, a most beautiful tract of timber in Morgan county, two miles southwest from Jacksonville. It is elevated above the surrounding prairie, and contains 700 or 800 acres, and surrounded with beautiful farms.
Diamond Grove Prairie, in Morgan county, south and adjacent to Jacksonville. It is four miles in extent, rich soil, undulating, dry surface, and mostly covered over with fine farms.
Dickerson's Lake is in the Illinois bottom, in Morgan county, near the bluffs.
Dillard's is a large settlement in Gallatin county, eight miles northwest of Shawneetown. The land generally is good.
Dillon's Post Office is in the town of Liberty, Tazewell county. Here is a large settlement called Dillon's.
Dixon's Ferry, and post office in Ogle county, on Rock river, on the stage road from Peoria to Galena. The country around is excellent, but there is a deficiency of timber for dense settlements. Formerly called O'Gee's Ferry.
Dixonville, a town site at Dixon's Ferry, on the south side of Rock river, in Ogle county. It contains 2 stores, 2 taverns, 1 grocery, a steam saw mill, 10 or 12 families, and is a pleasant site. Here the stage roads from Chicago by Napiersville:—from Ottawa by Troy grove;—and from Peoria by Windsor and Princeton all concentrate, and pass into Galena. Rock river here is 206 yards wide and is crossed by a rope ferry boat.
Dolson's Prairie is on the west side of Clark county, six miles wide, and twice as long, level, considerably wet and a rather thin and clay soil.
Donohue's Settlement is in the northeast corner of Jefferson county, on Adams's creek, ten miles from Mount Vernon. It is mostly a timbered tract, and has twenty or thirty families.
Downing's Settlement, in Bond county, nine miles south of Greenville. It is on the waters of Beaver creek, and is well furnished with timber and prairie.
Douglass, a post office on the east side of Macoupin county fifteen miles northeast from Carlinville.
Dresden, a town site near the junction of the Des Plaines and Kankakee, and on the line of the canal. It has one store and two or three families.
Drewry's Creek, a branch of Crab Orchard. It rises in Union County, runs a devious course northeasterly into Jackson county, and has a settlement of fifteen or twenty families. The land timbered, and second rate soil.
Driftwood, a post office in Iroquois county, on the road from Danville to Chicago.
Drowning Fork, in McDonough county. It rises in the prairies six north, one west, runs a southwestern course, and uniting with other branches, forms Crooked creek. It has a large body of excellent timber, surrounded with extensive prairies.
Dry Fork, a small stream in Macoupin county. It rises towards Cahokia creek, runs a northwesterly course, and enters the Macoupin above the forks.
Dry Fork, a branch of Shoal creek, in the northwest part of Bond county.
Dry Grove is a timbered tract in McLean county, in twenty-four north, one east, six miles north of west from Bloomington, and lies at the head of Sugar creek. It is about ten miles long, from east to west, high, dry, and undulating, and contains a settlement of about fifty families.
Dry Point, a small branch of Lake Fork of the Macoupin. The head of the timber is well known on the old road from Edwardsville to Springfield, and is nine north, six west, nine miles southeast from Carlinville.
Duck Grove, a small body of timber north of Holderman's Grove in La Salle county.
Dudley's Settlement, in Coles county, seven or eight miles east from Charleston. Including Richwood's, a fine body of timber south, it is an excellent tract of country, and contains more than 120 families.
Duncanton, a post office in Mantua settlement, in the southwestern part of White county, on the mail road from McLeanshoro to Shawneetown.
Dunwoody's Mill is on Indian creek, Morgan county, eight miles north of Jacksonville.
Du Page, [Riviere du Page, Fr.] a beautiful stream in Cook county. It rises in two forks, which unite in the settlement of Fountaindale. One fork rises near the Des Plaines, and runs a western course, and forms a junction with the other fork, which rises towards Fox river. After the junction it runs a southwestern course through groves and prairies, and enters the Des Plaines three miles above its junction with the Kankakee. There are large settlements on this stream at Walker's grove and Fountaindale.
Dutch Church Creek, in Pike county, takes its name from a bluff of a singular shape resembling one of the antiquated buildings of New York in Knickerbocker's days. It rises in the interior, and enters Snycartee.
Dutchman's Creek, a small branch of Cash river, in Johnson county. The land on this creek is excellent, and the settlement extensive.
Dutch Hill, a settlement in the southeast part of St. Clair county, and east of the Kaskaskia river. The land is good, and a mixture of timber and prairie.
Dutch Settlement, in Union county, lies south and in the vicinity of Jonesboro. The land is good, rolling, and well timbered. The settlement contains probably 200 families and is watered by Clear creek.
Eaton's Mill, is noticed as the name of a settlement in Jasper county, near Crawford, on the west side of the North Fork of the Embarras.
Eagle Creek, a small stream in Gallatin county. It rises in the interior, runs south, and enters the Saline creek near its mouth. Some broken, and some good land, and a large settlement are on this stream.
Eagle Creek, or L'Aigle creek, in Monroe county, see Fountain Creek.
Eagle Point, a post office in Macoupin county, 16 miles northwest from Carlinville.
East Fork of Cash River rises in Johnson county, twelve south, three east, runs south, by Vincennes, and enters the main stream below the "Scatters of Cash." The land on this stream is excellent. The timber consists of cypress, cedar, walnut, oaks of various species, etc.
East Fork of Kaskaskia River rises on the north side of Marion county, near the waters of the Little Wabash, runs west along the north part of Marion, crosses the northeast corner of Clinton, and enters the Kaskaskia, in the southwest corner of Fayette county. It has a heavy body of excellent timber on its banks; the prairies adjoining are undulating and rich, and the settlements along this water course are extensive.
East Fork of Shoal Creek, a stream and a settlement in the eastern part of Montgomery county. The stream rises in a large prairie in the northern portion of the county, runs southwestwardly, and enters the main creek near the south side of Bond county. The settlement extends along the timber which lines its banks and the land is tolerably level and fertile.
East Fork of Silver Creek rises in the northeastern part of Madison county, and unites with the West or main fork a short distance below the Marine settlement.
Edinburgh a town site in Sangamon county, in thirteen north, two west, 28 miles southeast from Springfield. Three stores, one grocery, one tavern, and a dozen families, surrounded with an excellent country along the south fork of Sangamon river.
Edmonson's Prairie, in McDonough county, six miles southwest from Macomb, is from one to two miles wide, ten miles long, and contains twenty-five or thirty families.
EDWARDSVILLE, the seat of justice for Madison county, is situated on sections two, three, and eleven, of township four north, in range eight west of the third principal meridian, twenty-one miles northeast from St. Louis, on the Springfield road, and twelve miles southeast from Alton. It has a court house and jail of brick, a land office for Edwardsville district, seven stores, two taverns, two physicians, four lawyers, a castor oil factory, various mechanics, and about seventy families. Here is also an academy and a commodious building. The Baptists and Methodists each have houses of worship. The inhabitants are generally industrious, intelligent, moral, and a large proportion professors of religion. The location of Edwardsville is pleasant, on high ground, healthy, and in the centre of a fertile, well watered, and well timbered country, settled with enterprising farmers. It is in latitude thirty-eight degrees forty-five minutes north.
Edwards's Settlement is in the north part of Pike county on McRaney's creek.
Edwards River rises in the prairies of Henry county, fifteen north, four east, runs west through Mercer county, where it turns south and enters the Mississippi near the Upper Yellow Banks. The country on this river is undulating, the timber in skirts and groves, the prairies large, and a supply of good water.
Eight Mile Prairie, in the southwest corner of Franklin county, eighteen miles southwest from Frankfort, level, and has a dense population. It is from one to two miles in diameter.
Elbridge Post office, in Edgar county, 10 miles from Paris, on the road to Terre Haute.
Elgin, a town site on Fox river, in the south part of McHenry county.
Ellisville, in Fulton county, on the west side of Spoon river, near the north side of seven north, two east. It has three stores, one tavern, a mill and a dozen families. A large prairie lies west. The land on the river is rather broken and timbered. Situation twenty miles northwest from Lewistown.
Ellison, a small stream that rises in the prairies of Warren county, runs west, and enters the Mississippi six miles below Henderson river. It has a fine settlement, and a rich body of land on its banks.
Elkheart Grove, in Sangamon county, north of Sangamon river, and about twenty miles northeast from Springfield, in eighteen north, three west. It is a beautiful grove of timber, containing six or seven hundred acres, on the right hand of the great road leading to Peoria, Ottawa, and Chicago. The timber is oak, walnut, linden, hickory, sugar tree, etc. The prairie adjoining is rich soil, ratber wet, and furnishes fine summer and winter range for cattle. Several families are settled here.
Elkhorn, a stream that rises in Washington county, south of Nashville, runs northwest, and enters the Kaskaskia river. The country on its borders is tolerably level, and has a large settlement. A post office is here.
Elkhorn Grove is in Jo-Daviess county, west of Buffaloe grove. It is nine miles long, and from one to three miles wide. A beautiful prairie surrounds it, and Elkhorn creek passes through it.
Elkhorn Creek, in Jo Daviess county. It rises near Red Oak grove, passes through Elkhorn grove, runs south west, and enters Rock river twenty miles below Dixon's ferry. Here is a beautiful country,, and the timber in groves.
Elk Prairie lies between the little Muddy and Beaucoup creeks, in Perry county, and is about five miles in extent. It is dry and tolerably level; soil second rate, and the settlement contains about twenty-five families.
Elm River, a branch of the Little Wabash. It rises in two heads, in the Twelve Mile prairie, in Clay county, north of the Vincennes road, and taking a southeastern direction, enters the Little Wabash in Wayne county. The west branch of Elm river bears the name of Racoon creek.
Embarras River, (pronounced Embroy in Fr.) a considerable stream in the eastern part of the state. It rises in Champaign county, eighteen north, nine east, near the sources of the Kaskaskia, the two Vermilions, and the Sangamon rivers. It runs south through Coles county, receives several smaller streams, enters Jasper, turns southeast across a corner of Crawford, passes through Lawrence county, and enters the Big Wabash, about six miles below Vincennes. The country on the Embarras is various, though there is much good land. Towards its head the prairie greatly predominates, the timber being in groves, and narrow strips along its banks. In Coles county, north of Charleston, the timber is from two to six miles wide. Below that place it gradually widens to the distance of eight or ten miles. It consists of the various qualities common on this side of the state. Generally the prairies through which it flows are second rate for more than half its length from its mouth. Its bottoms are inundated in very high floods. The main stream and its branches afford many good mill seats. From the vicinity of Lawrenceville to Vincennes, in high freshets, the Embarras and Big Wabash unite their waters and spread over the country for seven or eight miles in extent. Hence, from this occasional obstruction to travelling on the old "Vincennes trace," as the obscure path through the prairies to Kaskaskia was then called, the early French explorers gave the name "Embarras" to this stream.
Embarras, a town site in Coles county, one half mile east of the Embarras river, at the junction of the national road and the road from Palestine to Shelbyville, twenty miles south of Charleston, and fifty-two miles east of Vandalia. Good springs of water, high, rich, undulating prairie, and abundance of fine timber are said to belong to the conveniences of this location.
Embarras Settlement, in Coles county. I have given this name loan extensive tract of country thinly populated, extending along the west side of the Embarras, and north of Charleston. The quality of the land is on a medium with the rest of Coles county. South of Charleston, and on the same side, the country is thinly settled.
Eminence, a town site near Sugar creek in Tazewell county.
Emmettsburg, a Roman Catholic Irish and German settlement, or hamlet, on the line of the canal, eight miles above Juliet.
English Settlement is in Morgan county, west of Jacksonville, on Cadwell's, Walnut and Plum creeks. There are about one hundred families, mostly from Yorkshire, England, and farmers. They appear to be well pleased with the country, and to be accumulating property.
English Settlement, in the east part of Monroe county, is on Prairie de Long creek, in township three south, eight west. It contains about forty families, amongst whom are a number of English Catholics.
EQUALITY, the seat of justice for Gallatin county, situated on the north side of Saline creek, on section fifteen, nine south, eight east. It has nine stores, four groceries, two taverns, a brick court house forty feet square, two stories high, and neatly finished, a number of mechanics of different trades, and about seventy or eighty families. It is situated in the vicinity of the salt manufactories, fourteen miles south of Shawneetown. The adjacent country south and west is broken and rough; north and east is much good land.
Elvira Settlement, in Johnson county, on Lick creek, a branch of Cash river. It is about fifteen miles northwest from Vienna, and contains thirty or forty families. The land is rich and level.
Essex's Settlement, in the forks of Spoon river in the western part of Putnam county, townships twelve and thirteen north, in range six east from the fourth principal meridian. The surface is undulating, excellent timber, rich prairie, good water, stone quarries, a saw and grist mill, and about fifty families. The post office is called Wyoming.
Este's Prairie in Franklin county, fourteen miles north of Frankfort, is level, dry, and has a thin population on its borders.
Evans Settlement, on the north side, and near the head of Cash river, and on the eastern border of Union county. It has about forty families.
EWINGTON, the seat of justice of Effingham county, is situated on the national road, twenty-nine miles from Vandalia, in a northeastern direction, on the west bank of the little Wabash river, and on section five, seven north, five east. The site is elevated, and surrounded with timber. Opposite is the bottom land of the Little Wabash, about one fourth of a mile wide, and in high floods occasionally inundated. Ewington will probably become a pleasant village, though but little improvement is yet made.
Ewing's Fork, is a branch of the Middle Fork of the Big Muddy river, in Franklin county.
Exeter, a town site and post office on the Mauvaiseterre, in Morgan county, fourteen miles west of Jacksonville. It has a large flouring mill, two or three stores, and about fifteen families, and is surrounded with a large settlement.
Eyman's Settlement, in St. Clair county, four miles southwest of Belleville—a mixture of timber and prairie.
FAIRFIELD, the seat of justice for Wayne county, is on the border of Hargrave's prairie, on section six, township two south, range eight east. It contains three stores, one tavern, a handsome brick court house, and about twenty-five families. Large quantities of castor oil are manufactured at a press located here, belonging to Messrs. Leech & Turney.
Fairfield is a small but pleasant settlement in the northwestern part of Hancock county, in seven north, eight west.
Fairfield a town site in Adams county, on section eleven, township one north, range eight west, and has 10 or 12 families surrounded with a large settlement called Bear creek.
Fair Mount, a pleasant siuation in the Macoupin prairie, Greene county, sixteen miles a little west of south from Carrollton.
Fall Creek is a small stream in Adams county, eight miles long, which enters the Mississippi a few miles below Quincy.
Fancy Creek, a small branch of the Sangamon river. It rises in the prairies, takes a westerly course, and enters the river below the junction of the North and South Forks. The country is level, and the population considerable.
Fancy Farm, a post office in Franklin county, 9 miles east-southeast from Frankfort.
Fanning's Creek, a small branch of Apple creek, eight or ten miles long, in Morgan county, and has a dense population of about two hundred families.
Farm Creek, a small stream in Tazewell county, that runs west and enters the Illinois river opposite Peoria. Its bottoms are rich, bluffs broken, with white oak timber, and occasionally cedar. It is a mill stream.
Farmington, a town site and post office in the northeast corner of Fulton county, on the road from Canton to Knoxville. Elegant, rich, and rolling prairie around.
Fayette, a town site and post office in Greene county, adjoining Macoupin county on sections twelve and thirteen, township ten north, ten west, and on the road from Alton to Jacksonville. It has two stores and several families.
Fayetteville, a town site on the west side of the Kaskaskia river in St. Clair county, 16 miles southeast from Belleville, long known as Pulliam's ferry. It is on elevated ground and a good situation for a town site.
Fever River, in Jo Daviess county, rises near the Platte Mounds in two branches, the East and West forks, runs a southwesterly course past Galena, and enters the Mississippi seven miles south of that place. It is navigable at all times to Galena by steamboats of any size. For this distance it is deep and sluggish. The stream above Galena runs with a swift current over a rocky and gravelly bottom, is full of fine fish, and, like all the streams in this region, it is fed with perennial springs. In the East Fork settlement, which is twelve miles east from Galena, the timber is scarce, but there is much excellent prairie, and the lead mines are the best in Illinois. Population of farmers and miners about fifty families. On the West Fork or main creek is a considerable settlement, and some good farms. The alluvion on the stream is fine, and a tolerable supply of timber. This settlement is eight miles in a direct course, and twelve miles the travelled way, northeast from Galena. Fever river has been incorrectly called Bean river (Riviere au Feve, Fr.) We have given its proper name from two traditionary accounts. The first is, that in early times the Indians were carried off by a mortal sickness, supposed to be the small pox. This circumstance gave rise to the name of another creek now called Small Pox. The other tradition, and the correct one is, that it derived its name from a French trader by the name of La Fevre, who settled near its mouth.
Finch's Settlement is on a branch of the South Fork of Spoon river, in the southwestern part of Knox county.
Five Mile Grove is in the south part of Cook county, on the road from Hickory creek to Kankakee and Danville.
Flag Creek, a trifling stream in Cook county, that rises in the prairie between Du Page and Des Plaines, runs easterly, and enters Des Plaines below the road from Plainfield to Chicago. The land on its borders rather wet.
Flat Branch rises in Shelby county, runs northward, and empties into the South fork of Sangamon, in the northwest corner of the county. The country prairie and timber, and a settlement of seventy or eighty families. The bed of the stream is rocky.
Flat Prairie, a well cultivated prairie and large settlement in Randolph county, twenty miles east of Kaskaskia, settled chiefly by Reformed Presbyterians, or Covenanters, who have a resident minister and a respectable society.
Flora, a post office in Edgar county, 8 miles east of Paris.
Floria, a town site and settlement in Putnam county, 5 miles east of Hennepin—a delightful situation.
Ford's Ferry, in Gallatin county, on the Ohio, twenty miles below Shawneetown, and twenty-five miles south of Equality. It is on the great road from the southern parts of Kentucky and Tennessee to Illinois and Missouri.
Forked Creek, a small creek in Will county, and branch of the Kankakee. A post office of the same name is on it.
Forks of Sangamon is the name given to the settlement near the junction, and between the North and South forks of the Sangamon river. It is eight or ten miles south of Springfield. The surface is rather wet, level, considerable prairie land, with large bodies of timber on both streams. Here is a large settlement, and a town has been laid off, called Bolive.
Fork Prairie, in Bond county, between the forks of Shoal creek, and from two to eight miles north of Greenville. It is gently undulating, and surrounded with settlements.
Fork Settlement, in Clinton county, between Shoal creek and the Kaskaskia river, twelve miles southwesterly from Carlyle.
Forks of Spoon River. These are two principal branches that form the heads of this stream, and which for distinction I shall call the East and West forks. The East Fork rises in fifteen north, six east, runs south, through townships fourteen, thirteen, and twelve, of the same range, where it turns west, and meets the West fork, receiving in its course a number of smaller streams. There is much excellent land on this fork and its branches; prairie predominates, but it is generally dry and rich, with groves and points of timber, and many fine springs. The West Fork, rises in the southeast part of Henry county, in township fourteen north, five east, runs a southeasterly course, and unites with the East fork near the township line between four and five east. The country adjoining is similar to that on the East fork, except that the surface is more undulating. The timber is good, and in considerable bodies. Near the junction of these streams is much excellent timber, with a strip of fertile prairie between. Here is a considerable settlement, a grist and saw mill, and a post office. It is sometimes called Essex's Settlement.
Fort Chartres was a large stone fort, built by the French, while in possession of Illinois. It is situated half a mile from the Mississippi, and three miles from Prairie du Rocher, in the northwestern part of Randolph county. It was originally built by the French in 1720, to defend themselves against the Spaniards, who were then taking possession of the country on the Mississippi. It was rebuilt in 1756. The circumstances, character, form and history of the fort are interesting, but I have not room in this place to give them. Once it was a most formidable piece of masonry, the materials of which were brought three or four miles from the bluffs. It was originally an irregular quadrangle, the exterior sides of which were 490 feet in circumference. Within the walls were the commandant's and commissary's houses, a magazine for stores, barracks, powder magazine, bake house, guard house and prison.
This prodigious military work is now a heap of ruins. Many of the hewn stones have been removed by the people to Kaskaskia. A slough from the Mississippi approached and undermined the wall on one side in 1772. Over the whole fort is a considerable growth of trees, and most of its walls and buildings have fallen down and lie in one promiscuous ruin.
Fort Edwards is situated on the Mississippi in the southern part of Hancock county, five miles below the foot of the Lower rapids, and directly opposite the mouth of the river Des Moines. This was a military post till within a few years past, situated on a high rocky bluff of sand stone, which does not show itself on the surface. The country back is well timbered for a short distance, is of good soil and is now partially settled. Native alum is said to be found in considerable quantities near this site. Opposite the water is deep, the current gentle, and affords a good landing. When the river is low this will be the place to which the produce of the interior will be brought. A town called Warsaw is near this place.
Fort Massac, formerly a military post, situated on the Ohio river, on the dividing line of Johnson and Pope counties, eight miles below Paducah at the mouth of the Tennessee. "A fort was erected here by the French when in possession of the western country. The Indians, then at war with them, laid a curious stratagem to take it. A number of them appeared in the day time on the opposite side of the river, each of whom was covered with a bear skin and walked on all fours. Supposing them to be bears, a party of the French crossed the river in pursuit of them. The remainder of the troops left their quarters to see the sport.
"In the mean time a large body of warriors, who, were concealed in the woods near by, came silently behind the fort and entered it without opposition, and very few of the French escaped the massacre. They afterwards built another fort on the same ground and called it Massac, in memory of this disastrous event."* [*See Beck's Gazetteer, Art. Fort Massac; and Stoddard's Sketches of Louisiana.]
In 1750 they abandoned the position. After the revolutionary war, the Americans repaired or rebuilt it, and kept a garrison here for several years. The buildings are now destroyed. According to Ellicott, the latitude of Fort Massac is 37 degrees 15 minutes north.
Foster's Settlement, in the southeast corner of McDonough county, on the head of Sugar creek.
Foster's Settlement, of sixty or seventy families, lies on Mounse's creek, five miles south of Decatur.
Fountain Creek a small stream in Monroe county. It rises in New Design settlement, running first northeast, then northwest, and finally bending round to the southwest, it enters the Mississippi river in section seven, three south, eleven west. It is also called Eagle, and by the early French explorers, L'Aigle creek.
Fountain Bluff, frequently called the "Big Hill" in Jackson county. It is a singularly formed eminence, or rocky bluff on the Mississippi, six miles above the mouth of the Big Muddy river. It is of an oval shape, eight miles in circumference, and with an elevation of 300 feet. The western side is on the river, and the top is broken full of sink holes, with shrubs and mattering timber. The north side is nearly perpendicular rock, but the south side is sloping, and ends in a fine rich tract of soi1, covered with farms. East is an extensive and low bottom with lakes and swamps. Fine springs of limpid water gush out from the foot of this bluff on all sides. North, and along the bank of the Mississippi, is dry and rich alluvion with a line of farms, known by the name of the "Settlement under the Bluff."
Fountaindale, a flourishing settlement in the forks of the Du Page, Cook county, thirty miles west of Chicago. Here are perennial springs, beautiful timber, rich soil, extensive prairies, and good society of industrious and enterprising farmers. The Methodists and Presbyterians have congregations and constant preaching.
Fountain Green, a town site and post office in Hancock county, on section twenty-eight, township six north, range five west, ten miles northeast from Carthage. A flourishing settlement.
Four Mile Prairie, in Perry county, adjoining Pinckneyville, is seven miles long, and four miles wide. It is an elevated, dry, undulating, and fertile tract, with a dense settlement, and lies between the Big Beaucoup and Little Elm creeks.
Fourteen Mile Prairie, in Effingham county, receives its name from its distance along the national road. It lies east of Ewington, is generally level, but has some dry land and good points of timber.
Fox River, one of the principal branches of the Illinois. It rises in the Wisconsin territory, passes through a series of small lakes about the boundary line, and enters the Illinois river at Ottawa. Its general course is south. At the boundary line its width is forty-five yards. Several bodies of fine timber line its banks, especially about the mouth of Indian Creek and the Big Woods. At the rapids, five miles above its mouth, are most extensive water privileges. Here the river is from eighty to one hundred yards wide, with the bed and banks of coarse grained sand stone. The rapids are sixteen feet descent, and both sides of the river will admit of mills and machinery for three-fourths of a mile, with inexhaustible supplies of water. The deficiency of timber near this spot is the only drawback upon it; but inexhaustible bodies of coal are to be found but a few miles distant. It furnishes a vast amount of water power, and can be easily made navigable by dams and slack water. From the town of Elgin near the south part of McHenry county, it is a deep sluggish stream, connected with a string of lakes, and is navigable within fifteen miles of Milwaukee. Hence, with small expense, a navigable communication may be opened from Lake Michigan by Milwaukee and Fox river.
Fox River, a tributary of the Little Wabash, dividing the counties of Clay and Lawrence. It rises in Jasper county, runs south, and enters the Little Wabash near the line of Edwards county. The land along its course is about second quality for this portion of the state.
Fox River, in the northeastern part of White county. It is a bayou that puts out from the Big Wabash, runs a few miles, and again enters that river.The late Morris Birbeck, Esq., known as one of the English emigrants to Edwards county, and author of "Letters from Illinois," was unfortunately drowned in attempting to swim this stream on horseback.
Fox River post office, is near Fox river in White county.
Frakers, a small settlement between the forks of Spoon river, and the borders of Henry county, thirteen north, four east.
Franklin Grove, in Ogle county, lies between Grand Detour and Winnebago inlet with seven or eight families settled around it.
FRANKFORT is the seat of justice for Franklin county, on section twenty, seven south, three east of the third principal meridian. It is situated on elevated ground, and has five stores, two groceries, one tavern, with a blacksmith, wagonmaker, saddler, and tanyard, together with a horse mill, a distillery, and 150 inhabitants.
Franklin, a town site and post office in Morgan county, thirteen miles southeast from Jacksonville. It has two stores, one grocery and twenty families.
Frazier's Creek rises near the base line, in Adams county, runs west, and falls into the south prong of Bear creek. Along it are fine farms and a beautiful country.
Free's Settlement is on the borders of a handsome prairie, in the southeastern part of St. Clair county, between the two Mud creeks, eighteen miles from Belleville.
French Grove, in Putnam county, sixteen north, seven east—a small grove settled around; prairie dry and undulating.
French Grove, a small settlement in the northwestern part of Peoria county, on the branches of Spoon river. It contains three or four sections of excellent timber in groves, with abundance of rich, dry rolling prairie around it.
French Settlement, in the southeastern part of Lawrence county, ten miles from Lawrenceville, is a timbered tract, and rather broken. Of the population, which consists of sixty families, about one half are French.
French Village, in St. Clair county, called formerly Little French Village, was formed by settlers from Cahokia about forty years since. It lies on the bottom, near the bluffs, on the road from Belleville to St. Louis, and contains fifteen or twenty families.
Friends Creek, a branch of the North fork of Sangamon, in Macon county, sixteen miles northeast from Decatur. The land is good, and the settlement large.
Funk's Grove, a settlement in McLean county, twelve miles southwest from Bloomington. The grove is roundish in form, contains about eight square miles; and lies on the main branch of Sugar creek. It has an excellent soil, fine water, and is monopolised by a family connection of the name of Funk, from Ohio, who raise large numbers of cattle.
Fulfer's Creek, near the south border of Effingham county, enters the Little Wabash below Brockett's settlement. There is a considerable quantity of good land on its banks, and a settlement of twelve or fifteen families.
Fulton, a town site at the mouth of the Ohio river, where it is contemplated to erect a monument to the memory of Robert Fulton, whose inventive powers in the application of steam to navigation is fast transforming the immense regions of the valley of the Mississippi into the garden of the world. Mercantile enterprise will undoubtedly yet triumph over the obstructions of nature, and erect a spacious city at the mouth of the Ohio river.
Gagnie, a sluggish stream that runs southwest into the Mississippi, and forms the boundary line between Randolph and Jackson counties.
GALENA is the seat of justice for Jo Daviess county, and the principal town in the lead mine country. It is pleasantly situated on Fever river, and on the fourth principal meridian. It has eighteen or twenty.stores, a dozen groceries, four taverns and hotels, a printing office that publishes the "Gazette" a weekly paper, four lawyers, three physicians, two schools, two preachers, a pipe and sheet lead manufactory, a flour and saw mill, a gunsmith, silversmith, saddler, tailor, several carpenters, blacksmiths, brick and stone masons, etc. There are about three hundred families and ten or twelve hundred inhabitants. Fever river is navigable for steamboats to the town.
Gap Groves lies in Ogle county, to the north of the road from Dixonvilie to Buffaloe grove. Three sections of timber.
Garden Prairie, between Richland and Rock creeks, in Sangamon county, is a level, rich, beautiful prairie, two miles wide, and six or eight miles long, fourteen miles northwesterly from Springfield, and contains a population of one hundred and fifty families.
Germany, a settlement of Pennsylvania Germans, in Sangamon county, four miles northeast from Springfield, and near the mouth of Sugar creek.
Geneva is a post office and town site in Morgan county, about ten miles southwest from Jacksonville.
George's Creek heads in the interior of Johnson county, runs south, and enters the ponds between the Big Bay creek and Cash river. The land is tolerably rich, and the settlement contains twenty-five or thirty families.
Georgetown, a post town and village, containing about twenty families and three stores, situated on the north side of the Little Vermilion, in eighteen north, eleven west, in Vermilion county, ten miles south of Danville. A fine country, and flourishing settlements around it.
Georgetown, a town site in Sangamon county, twenty miles northeast from Springfield, between Lake fork and Salt creek, in section nineteen, eighteen north, two west.
Georgetown, in the eastern part of Randolph county, contains one store, two groceries, a mill, and seven or eight families. The post office is called "Steele's Mill".
Gilead, the former seat of justice of Calhoun county, is situated at the foot of the bluffs, three-fourths of a mile from the mouth of Salt Prairie slough, on section eight, eleven south, two west. It has two stores, and a dozen families.
Gilliam's Settlement is in Bond county, nine miles east of north from Greenville. The land is of inferior quality, consisting of both timber and prairie.
Gilmore's Settlement is on Crooked creek, in Clinton county, on the road to Shawneetown, twelve miles southeast of Carlyle.
Girard, a town site in the northeast part of Macoupin county, on the road from Alton to Springfield.
GOLCONDA is situated on the south side of Lusk's creek and north bank of the Ohio. It is the county seat of Pope, and has three stores, one grocery, two taverns, and about twenty dwelling houses, chiefly framed and brick. The court house is of brick, thirty-six feet square, two stories, with a neat cupola. It is situated on the fractional township thirteen south, in range seven east of the third principal meridian.
Goose Creek enters the North fork of Sangamon, in Macon county, twenty-five miles northeast from Decatur.
Goshen is the oldest settlement in Madison county, along the bluffs, west aud southwest of Edwardsville.
Grable's Settlement, in Gallatin county, is sixteen miles west from Equality, on the road to Frankfort. It is a large settlement, with considerable tracts of good farming land.
Graham's Settlement, in Alexander county, on the north side, twenty-five miles northwest from America. The upland is thin soil, but there is a rich bottom on a branch of Cash river, which runs through this settlement.
Grafton is a town recently laid off, two miles below the mouth of the Illinois, in Greene county. It is situated on a strip of elevated land, under the bluffs, and on the banks of the Mississippi, and has a good landing. It is on fractional section fifteen, township eight north, in range twelve west from the third principal meridian. Several Islands in the Mississippi make this point the real junction of the Illinois and Mississippi rivers, as to navigation. The country a few miles back is rich, and becoming densely populated. Grafton is twenty-four miles from Carrollton, and ten miles from St. Charles, in Missouri, and must soon become a thoroughfare for travelling from the Sangamon country across the Mississippi to St. Charles, and the regions along the Missouri river. It has a post office, several stores and warehouses, 400 or 500 inhabitants, and promises to be a place of considerable business. A charter for a rail road from this place through Carrollton to Springfield has been obtained, the company organised and a portion of the stock taken. A chartered company are about to erect a splendid hotel, and a printing office is to be established here in a few weeks and a weekly paper issued.
Grand Cote, an eminence in a large prairie, in the eastern part of Randolph county.
Grand Detour, a singular bend in Rock river, in Ogle county, five miles above Dixonville. Here a town of the same name has been laid off, and by cutting a canal across the neck of the bend for a short distance, a valuable hydraulic power will be gained. An enterprising company are engaged in the project.
Grand Marais, called also Clear Lake, in St. Clair county in the bottom, between the French Village and Cahokia.
Grand Passe, two lakes in the Illinois bottom, at the southwest corner of Greene county, so called by the French explorers of Illinois, from the successive flocks of geese seen flying from the one to the other. They are connected with Apple creek by a stream called Fishing creek.
Granger's Prairie is in the northwest part of Adams county, and is three miles long and from one and a half to mile wide. Very rich land.
Grand Point, a small stream and settlement in Washington county, six miles northeast from New Nashville, and contains about twenty families. The creek runs north and enters Crooked creek.
Grand Prairie. Under this general name is embraced the prairie country lying between the waters which fall into the Mississippi, and those which enter the Wabash rivers. It does not consist of one vast tract, boundless to the vision, and uninhabitable for want of timber; but is made up of continuous tracts, with points of timber projecting inward, and long arms of prairie extending between the creeks and smaller streams. The southern joints of the Grand prairie are formed in the northeastern parts of Jackson county, and extend in a northeastern course between the streams of various widths, from one to ten or twelve miles, through Perry, Washington, Jefferson, Marion, the eastern part of Fayette, Effingham, through the western portion of Coles, into Champaign and Iroquois counties, where it becomes connected with the prairies that project eastward from the Illinois river and its tributaries. A large arm lies in Marion county, between the waters of Crooked creek and the East fork of the Kaskaskia river, where the Vincennes road passes through in its longest direction. This is frequently called the Grand prairie. Much the largest part of the Grand prairie is gently undulating; but of the southern portion considerable tracts are flat, and of rather inferior soil. No insurmountable obstacle exists to its future population. No portion of it is more than six or eight miles distant from timber, and coal in abundance is found in various parts. Those who have witnessed the changes produced upon a prairie surface within twenty or thirty years, consider these extensive prairies as offering no serious impediment to the future growth of the state.
Grand Prairie, in Crawford county. The tract of prairie between the Embarras and Wabash rivers, commencing in Crawford county, and running northward through Clark and Edgar into Vermilion county, is called Grand prairie, by the citizens of those counties. It is not of great width, interspersed with long points of timber on the streams, and frequently throwing out arms of prairie land between those streams. The prairie soil in this region is not equal in quality to that further north and west. With the exception of the sand prairies along the Wabash, the soil is thinner, less undulating, and more inclined to be wet.
Grand Tower, a perpendicular sand rock rising from the bed of the Mississippi, near the Missouri side, and a short distance above the mouth of Big Muddy river. The top is level, seventy or eighty feet high, and supports a stratum of soil on which are found a few stunted cedars and shrubs. Here are indications that a barrier of rock once extended across the Mississippi, and formed a grand cataract. The bed of the river, at a low stage of water still exhibits achain of sunken rocks. The "Devils Tea Table," "Back Bone" etc. are names given by the boatmen of the Mississippi to the singularly formed, abrupt, and romantic precipices that line the banks of that river in the vicinity of the Grand Tower.
Grand View, a village in the southwestern part of Edgar county, ten miles from Paris, and on the state road to Vandaiia. It is on, and surrounded by a beautiful, rolling rich prairie, near the head waters of Big creek. A post office is here.
Grassy Creek, in Franklin county, a branch of Crab Orchard. Good land.
Graysville, a town of fifteen or twenty families and a convenient landing on the Big Wabash, in the northeast corner of White county, and at the mouth of the Bon Pas creek. It has 3 stores, 1 grocery, 8 taverns, one steam saw and grist mill and 100 inhabitants. Exports about $l00,000; imports, $30,000 per annum. This is a convenient place of deposit for Edwards county.
Gregory's Settlement, in Clinton county, fifteen miles northwest of Carlyle.
Green Plains, a post office and settlement, in Hancock county 8 miles southeast of Warsaw.
Greenfield, a town site near Lick creek, in Sangamon county, fifteen miles southwesterly from Springfield on sections three and ten, fourteen north, seven west, Heredith's mills are in the vicinity.
Greenfield, a town site in Green county, in String prairie, 10 miles east from Carrollton. It has two stores, a carding machine and a dozen families.
Greenfield, a town site in Putnam county, near the head of the Bureau timber, on section twenty-four, eighteen north, ten east. It has half a dozen houses.
Greenup, a town site and post office, on the National Road east of the Embarras, in Coles county. It has 2 stores, 2 saw and one grist mill and about 20 families.
GREENVILLE, the seat of justice for Bond county, is a pleasant village on the East fork of Shoal creek, on section ten, township five north, in range three west of the third principal meridian. It has 4 stores, 3 taverns, 3 physicians, 1 lawyer, various mechanics, and 200 inhabitants. The court house is a two story frame building, unfinished.
Green's Settlement, in Bond county, seven miles southwest from Greenville. The country around is proportioned into timber and prairie.
Green River has its rise in the Winnebago and other swamps in Ogle and Henry counties, runs a west course through Henry county, and enters Rock river in township seventeen north, one west. It is a deep sluggish stream well adapted to navigation and below the swamps has much fine land both timber and prairie.
Griggsville, a town site and post office in Pike county, eight miles northeast from Pittsfield, on sections fifteen and twenty-two, four south, three west. It is four miles west of Phillip's ferry on the Illinois river, on high ground,and on the border of a large, undulating prairie, and surrounded with good settlements.
Grindstone Fork, a branch of Crooked creek, in the south part of McDonough county.
Griswold's Post Office is in Lockwood's settlement, Hamilton county, twenty miles north of Equality.
Gros Point is a promontory that puts into Lake Michigan, twelve miles above Chicago. It is twenty feet high, projects two hundred yards into the lake, rich, timbered land, and settled around.
Groveland, post office and town site, in Tazewell county, on section twenty-seven, township twenty-five north, range five west, and on the road from Springfield to Peoria.
GUILFORD, the new county seat of Calhoun county, is situated on the west side of the Illinois river, in fractional township eleven south, two west, one mile below and opposite the mouth of the Macoupin. It has been recently laid off and is said to be well situated for business purposes. A company has been chartered to cut a canal from the Mississippi near Gilead, the former seat of justice, to the Illinois river at Guilford. The distance does not exceed three miles, and by tunneling a short distance under the bluff, it is said the work can be accomplished, and a steamboat canal constructed at comparatively small expense. This communication would save fifty miles navigation from the Illinois river to the Upper Mississippi, and, as the latter is elevated considerably above the former, create an immense water power, which is the object of the company.
Gum's Fort. See Henderson's Settlement, Knox county.
Gun Prairie, in Jefferson county, six miles south of Mount Vernon, two miles long, and one mile wide. The land is good, and the settlement contains twenty families.
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